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  • In this Perspective, the authors propose a new classification system for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and related neurodegenerative disorders that recognizes, in parallel, the clinical syndromes and the underlying biology of disease. The framework emerged from discussions at the Second International Pre-Symptomatic ALS Workshop in Miami (February 2023).

    • Michael Benatar
    • Joanne Wuu
    • Lorne Zinman
  • Alzheimer disease is a complex and multifactorial condition. The authors of this Perspective suggest that its lack of a singular common pathogenesis prevents it from being regarded as a straightforward ‘disease’ and that treatment will therefore require a multifaceted approach.

    • Amos D. Korczyn
    • Lea T. Grinberg
  • In this Perspective, the authors discuss the need for neurologists to assist in court cases involving criminal behaviour that was potentially influenced by a neurological disorder. The authors review evidence linking neurological disorders with criminal activity, and advocate for the development of forensic neurology as a subspecialty of the field.

    • R. Ryan Darby
    • Ciaran Considine
    • William C. Darby
  • In this Perspective, Zech and Winkelmann outline multidimensional strategies for genetic diagnosis in patients with rare movement disorders and highlight community-driven data-sharing and case-matchmaking platforms designed to foster the discovery of new genotype–phenotype relationships.

    • Michael Zech
    • Juliane Winkelmann
  • This Perspective proposes a tripartite model involving the amygdala, hippocampus and striatum as key structures underlying cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson disease. The authors explore the anatomical and functional relationships of the structures and summarize evidence of their involvement in the cognitive aspects of the disease.

    • Salvatore Citro
    • Giulia Di Lazzaro
    • Paolo Calabresi
  • In this Perspective, Owolabi et al. propose strategies to improve brain health and address the growing global burden of neurological disorders. They present a new framework — the neurological quadrangle — which aims to provide equitable and effective surveillance, prevention, acute care and rehabilitation of neurological disorders globally.

    • Mayowa O. Owolabi
    • Matilde Leonardi
    • Franco Servadei
  • In this Perspective, Edwards and colleagues present their opinion that functional neurological disorder is categorically different from feigning and malingering. They discuss clinical, epidemiological and experimental evidence in support of this view.

    • Mark J. Edwards
    • Mahinda Yogarajah
    • Jon Stone
  • In this Perspective article, Lipkin et al. consider the contribution of cohort studies to our understanding of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and debate the promise and potential challenges of such studies for dissecting the causes of ASDs and developing interventional strategies.

    • W. Ian Lipkin
    • Michaeline Bresnahan
    • Ezra Susser
  • Despite substantial research advances, treatment of neuropathic pain remains inadequate and responses to treatment are highly variable. In this Perspective, the authors argue that rational stratification of patients with neuropathic pain will aid identification of subgroups of patients who will benefit most from a given treatment.

    • Ralf Baron
    • Anthony H. Dickenson
    • David L. Bennett
  • Following successful clinical trials of a gene therapy for Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, Pitceathly and colleagues discuss progress towards genetic therapies for other primary mitochondrial diseases. They highlight advances in DNA editing technologies and offer their view on obstacles to clinical application.

    • Micol Falabella
    • Michal Minczuk
    • Robert D. S. Pitceathly
  • In this Perspective article, the authors outline how studying multiple sclerosis (MS) genetics in ancestrally diverse populations is likely to yield insights that could benefit individuals with MS from all ancestral groups.

    • Benjamin Meir Jacobs
    • Michelle Peter
    • Ruth Dobson
  • In this Perspective, the authors present their vision for a closed-loop system for automatic symptom monitoring and levodopa administration in individuals with Parkinson disease. The system would capitalize on the ongoing advances in wearable sensor technology, drug delivery systems and machine learning.

    • Hazhir Teymourian
    • Farshad Tehrani
    • Joseph Wang
  • Many episodes of status epilepticus do not respond to first-line treatment with benzodiazepines. In this Perspective, Richard Burman and colleagues discuss seizure-induced alterations to the sensitivity of the GABA receptor to benzodiazepines, presenting these changes as a possible mechanism of treatment resistance.

    • Richard J. Burman
    • Richard E. Rosch
    • Joseph V. Raimondo
  • In this Perspectives article, David Fischer and colleagues present a stepwise conceptual framework for neuroprognostication after severe brain injury, with the aim of providing structure and guidance to supplement clinical judgement and direct future investigation.

    • David Fischer
    • Brian L. Edlow
    • David M. Greer
  • This Perspective highlights the importance of integrating cultural factors into dementia research and care. Focusing on minoritized groups in the USA, the authors explore the effects of culture on clinical evaluation, dementia risk, research and study recruitment, and caregiving practices.

    • Clara Vila-Castelar
    • Joshua T. Fox-Fuller
    • Yakeel T. Quiroz
  • Traditionally, CNS diseases have been classified into early-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and late-onset neurodegenerative disorders. However, as this article highlights, we now recognize that developmental and neurodegenerative disorders can involve shared mechanisms, with some classic neurodegenerative diseases also having a neurodevelopmental component.

    • Richard A. Hickman
    • Sarah A. O’Shea
    • Wendy K. Chung