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  • A new study on dementia prevalence in Latin America has found a stronger effect of social determinants of health than ancestry effects specific to this region, highlighting the need for interventions involving lifestyle changes, healthcare access and education.

    • Agustin Ibanez
    • Andrea Slachevsky
    News & Views
  • Immunological profiling has revealed biological signatures of multiple sclerosis (MS) that could help with early, accurate diagnosis of the disease and with identifying disease subtypes that could inform treatment decisions. The findings are important steps along the path towards precision medicine for people with MS.

    • Jiwon Oh
    • Amit Bar-Or
    News & Views
  • A computational neuroimaging study has shed new light on the relationship between morphological changes in the brain in schizophrenia and the network architecture of the brain, providing evidence to support two network theories of the disorder.

    • Martijn P. van den Heuvel
    • Sara L. Seoane
    News & Views
  • Since its instigation in cancer research in the 1930s, the disease-staging concept has become a crucial tool in clinical research and medical practice. Two new papers have proposed biological staging and classification systems based on α-synuclein pathology for Parkinson disease and related conditions.

    • Nobutaka Hattori
    News & Views
  • Success in a trial of low-intensity ultrasound combined with an amyloid-β antibody represents a major stride towards integrating pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to reduce the amyloid-β load in patients with mild Alzheimer disease. This trial also highlights the potential of therapeutic ultrasound modalities to combat neurodegenerative diseases.

    • Jürgen Götz
    • Pranesh Padmanabhan
    News & Views
  • A study now reveals that CSF, but not imaging, biomarkers for Alzheimer disease show weaker correlation to cognitive measures in Black people than in White people. The findings offer insights into Alzheimer disease biomarker utility across racially diverse groups.

    • Maria C. Carrillo
    • Simin Mahinrad
    News & Views
  • Using integrative multiomics, a new study has shed light on the aetiology of ischaemic stroke. By probing the mechanisms underlying stroke, such approaches could aid the development of therapies and improve risk prediction and stratification, with the ultimate aim of developing personalized preventive and therapeutic strategies.

    • Stéphanie Debette
    • Daniel I. Chasman
    News & Views
  • A new study indicates that African American people with multiple sclerosis have higher markers of humoral disease pathology than white people with multiple sclerosis. However, apparent differences in pathophysiology between ethnic groups cannot be fully interpreted without more comprehensive studies that examine the effects of social inequality on disease.

    • Christopher M. Orlando
    • Lilyana Amezcua
    News & Views
  • New guidelines for designing controlled clinical trials for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) have been published. The design of such trials remains a challenge, as the heterogeneity of IIH necessitates different outcome measures for specific clinical presentations.

    • Valérie Biousse
    • Nancy J. Newman
    News & Views
  • The underlying cause of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) remains enigmatic, but an increased risk among spouses of people with AD has led to speculation of transmissibility. A mouse study now suggests that the transfer of microbiota could underlie this potential transmissibility, but the findings leave many questions unanswered.

    • Kristina Endres
    • Karl-Herbert Schäfer
    News & Views
  • A new study indicates that although men and women are equally likely to experience cognitive impairment after acute ischaemic stroke, there are sex differences in particular cognitive domains. Whether these differences are directly linked to biological sex is uncertain, as many factors, including age and pre-stroke factors, could contribute to cognitive outcomes.

    • Louise D. McCullough
    News & Views
  • The TRACK-TBI LONG study has shown that outcomes are highly variable in the 7 years after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although many patients remain stable, almost one-third experience declines in cognitive, psychiatric and functional state. These findings suggest that TBI is a chronic disease and that its management should change accordingly.

    • David J. Sharp
    • Neil S. N. Graham
    News & Views
  • Two recent studies leverage the same French population-based disease registry to describe real-world medication prescription patterns, patient characteristics and treatment effectiveness in people with schizophrenia. These studies also identify disparities in the health care and outcomes of these individuals compared with those of the general population.

    • Marco Solmi
    • Christoph U. Correll
    News & Views
  • Results from the phase III trials of the amyloid-targeting antibodies donanemab and solanezumab add further evidence that amyloid pathology is a key driver of cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease. The mixed results highlight important considerations for future trials and clinical practice.

    • Wiesje M. van der Flier
    • Betty M. Tijms
    News & Views
  • Two studies have confirmed previous observations that an inverse relationship exists between chronological age and focal white-matter inflammatory activity in individuals with multiple sclerosis, which could underlie the relative ineffectiveness of traditional disease-modifying therapies in older individuals.

    • Benjamin M. Segal
    News & Views
  • The European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) and European Academy of Neurology (EAN) joint consensus statement on vaccination in people with multiple sclerosis provides highly relevant clinical guidance on immunization strategies in today’s era of effective immunotherapies. Nevertheless, several open questions remain to be addressed.

    • Uwe K. Zettl
    • Paulus S. Rommer
    News & Views
  • New biologics are rapidly opening up target-specific therapeutic opportunities for myasthenia gravis (MG) — an autoimmune disease caused by antibodies against neuromuscular junction proteins. Two recent trials have now demonstrated the efficacy and tolerability of the complement C5 inhibitor zilucoplan and the FcRn inhibitor rozanolixizumab in patients with generalized MG.

    • Marinos C. Dalakas
    News & Views
  • A new study using the UK Biobank database has shown that people with epilepsy are at an increased risk of developing dementia. The results demonstrate that this risk is multiplied in individuals who also have high cardiovascular risk, highlighting the importance of addressing modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.

    • Michele Romoli
    • Cinzia Costa
    News & Views
  • A new study examining trends in postmortem neuropathology results over the past 25 years provides important insights into secular trends in dementia risk. The results suggest that improvements in both cardiovascular health and cognitive reserve underlie the reduced risk.

    • Richard Merrick
    • Fiona E. Matthews
    News & Views
  • A study of more than 350,000 individuals has shown that multisite chronic pain is strongly correlated with elevated risk of dementia, decreased cognitive function and reduced hippocampal volume. Further study of these relationships and their potential underlying mechanisms is required and could inform the development of interventions to prevent or slow dementia.

    • Hongxin Dong
    News & Views