A developing brain surrounded by symbols relating to sex and gender

Sex and gender in neurodevelopmental conditions

Current knowledge and challenges



    • An artificial intelligence-based tool can turn low-resolution clinical MRI scans into high-resolution 3D objects suitable for research studies. The new approach opens up the possibility of secondary analysis of large clinical MRI datasets to answer disease-relevant questions, although further work to automate scan annotation will be required.

      • Giovanni B. Frisoni
      News & Views
    • In this Review, the authors discuss recent efforts to predict disease onset, treatment response and disease outcome in individuals with psychosis. They cover genetic, biological, clinical and environmental predictive factors and assess whether the variation in outcomes is attributable to differences in the pathophysiology of psychosis.

      • Fiona Coutts
      • Nikolaos Koutsouleris
      • Philip McGuire
      Review Article
    • A new study, drawing on data from national biobanks, adds to the growing evidence that exposure to common viral pathogens increases the risk of Alzheimer disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. These findings might provide insights into the initiating factors that lead to neurodegeneration.

      • Britanie M. Blackhurst
      • Kristen E. Funk
      News & Views
    • Chronic neuropathic pain is a leading cause of disability that remains therapeutically challenging. Here, Fiore et al. review the immune mechanisms that contribute to the resolution of chronic neuropathic pain. Contributions of the gut microbiome and specialized pro-resolving mediators are also discussed, along with potential therapeutic strategies.

      • Nathan T. Fiore
      • Sophie R. Debs
      • Gila Moalem-Taylor
      Review Article
    • Wilson et al. review our current knowledge of the extracellular proteostasis system that protects the brain from the pathological consequences of extracellular protein aggregation. They discuss growing evidence that impairment of this system contributes to neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases.

      • Mark R. Wilson
      • Sandeep Satapathy
      • Michele Vendruscolo
      Review Article
  • New research reports changes in serum blood–brain barrier (BBB) markers after bilateral tonic–clonic seizures, corroborating earlier observations in animal models.

    • Lisa Kiani
    Research Highlight
  • A growing understanding of the neurobiology of psychosis offers hope for an improvement in the standard of care; this includes the development of individualized, precision therapeutics. However, the path to precision psychiatry is long, and progress would be accelerated by greater collaboration with the fields of neurology and neuroscience.

    • Matcheri S. Keshavan
    • Brett A. Clementz
  • Prediction tools offer great promise for clinicians in the prevention and treatment of psychosis, but none has been routinely implemented. Greater methodological rigour in the development and evaluation of these tools, along with consideration of a range of performance criteria, is necessary to maximize their potential for improving clinical decision making.

    • Aida Seyedsalehi
    • Belinda Lennox

Treatment of multiple sclerosis

The first disease-modifying therapy for relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis — interferon‑β 1b — was approved by the FDA in 1993. The following 25 years have seen rapid expansion of the therapeutic options as an evolving understanding of the disease has enabled development of therapies with different modes of action.


Nature Careers