A developing brain surrounded by symbols relating to sex and gender

Sex and gender in neurodevelopmental conditions

Current knowledge and challenges



  • New research reports changes in serum blood–brain barrier (BBB) markers after bilateral tonic–clonic seizures, corroborating earlier observations in animal models.

    • Lisa Kiani
    Research Highlight
  • A growing understanding of the neurobiology of psychosis offers hope for an improvement in the standard of care; this includes the development of individualized, precision therapeutics. However, the path to precision psychiatry is long, and progress would be accelerated by greater collaboration with the fields of neurology and neuroscience.

    • Matcheri S. Keshavan
    • Brett A. Clementz
  • Prediction tools offer great promise for clinicians in the prevention and treatment of psychosis, but none has been routinely implemented. Greater methodological rigour in the development and evaluation of these tools, along with consideration of a range of performance criteria, is necessary to maximize their potential for improving clinical decision making.

    • Aida Seyedsalehi
    • Belinda Lennox

Treatment of multiple sclerosis

The first disease-modifying therapy for relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis — interferon‑β 1b — was approved by the FDA in 1993. The following 25 years have seen rapid expansion of the therapeutic options as an evolving understanding of the disease has enabled development of therapies with different modes of action.


Nature Careers