Latest Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Here, the authors discuss the mechanisms by which food and specific nutrients could affect the uraemic phenotype in chronic kidney disease (CKD). They suggest that a food-as-medicine approach could potentially be used to prevent and treat CKD and its complications.

    • Denise Mafra
    • , Natalia A. Borges
    • , Bengt Lindholm
    • , Paul G. Shiels
    • , Pieter Evenepoel
    •  & Peter Stenvinkel
  • Review Article |

    Acute kidney injury is a common complication of trauma. Here, the authors examine how, in addition to direct trauma to the kidneys, the pathophysiological responses to traumatic injuries in distant organs, including immune responses, can result in kidney dysfunction.

    • David A. C. Messerer
    • , Rebecca Halbgebauer
    • , Bo Nilsson
    • , Hermann Pavenstädt
    • , Peter Radermacher
    •  & Markus Huber-Lang
  • Review Article |

    This Review provides an overview of fluorescence-based microscopy techniques that have been used to study molecular processes within the kidney. The authors describe how the development of cutting-edge technologies has enabled high spatiotemporal resolution of molecular interactions and processes, and how these approaches have aided our understanding of kidney dynamics.

    • Suman Ranjit
    • , Luca Lanzanò
    • , Andrew E. Libby
    • , Enrico Gratton
    •  & Moshe Levi
  • Review Article |

    Nuclear receptors have important roles in normal physiological functions and in the pathophysiology of various diseases. Here, the authors focus on the roles of nuclear receptors in podocyte biology and non-diabetic glomerular disease as well as their potential as therapeutic targets.

    • Shipra Agrawal
    • , John C. He
    •  & Pierre-Louis Tharaux
  • Review Article |

    Ontologies are powerful tools that facilitate the integration of large and disparate data sets. Here, researchers from the Kidney Precision Medicine Project provide an introduction to ontologies, including those developed by the consortium, describing how these will be used to improve the annotation of kidney-relevant data, eventually leading to new definitions of kidney disease in support of precision medicine.

    • Edison Ong
    • , Lucy L. Wang
    • , Jennifer Schaub
    • , John F. O’Toole
    • , Becky Steck
    • , Avi Z. Rosenberg
    • , Frederick Dowd
    • , Jens Hansen
    • , Laura Barisoni
    • , Sanjay Jain
    • , Ian H. de Boer
    • , M. Todd Valerius
    • , Sushrut S. Waikar
    • , Christopher Park
    • , Dana C. Crawford
    • , Theodore Alexandrov
    • , Christopher R. Anderton
    • , Christian Stoeckert
    • , Chunhua Weng
    • , Alexander D. Diehl
    • , Christopher J. Mungall
    • , Melissa Haendel
    • , Peter N. Robinson
    • , Jonathan Himmelfarb
    • , Ravi Iyengar
    • , Matthias Kretzler
    • , Sean Mooney
    •  & Yongqun He
  • Review Article |

    Developments in digital pathology and computational image analysis have the potential to identify new disease mechanisms, improve disease classification and prognostication, and ultimately aid the identification of targeted therapies. In this Review, the authors provide an outline of the digital ecosystem in nephropathology and describe potential applications and challenges associated with the emerging armamentarium of technologies for image analysis.

    • Laura Barisoni
    • , Kyle J. Lafata
    • , Stephen M. Hewitt
    • , Anant Madabhushi
    •  & Ulysses G. J. Balis
  • Review Article |

    Effective treatment of kidney failure depends on reliable vascular access; however, options for chronic vascular access for haemodialysis have remained unchanged for decades. This Review evaluates the key existing challenges in establishing and maintaining vascular access and describes novel and innovative technologies under development that address these issues.

    • Jeffrey H. Lawson
    • , Laura E. Niklason
    •  & Prabir Roy-Chaudhury
  • Review Article |

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is essential for kidney filtration. This Review describes how studies of GBM composition and structure have provided insights into GBM assembly, its developmental transitions and its role in glomerular filtration. The authors also discuss GBM-associated diseases and current and potential future treatments for these disorders.

    • Richard W. Naylor
    • , Mychel R. P. T. Morais
    •  & Rachel Lennon
  • Review Article |

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that genomic disorders and monogenic aetiologies contribute meaningfully to seemingly complex forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This Review describes rare genetic causes of CKD and the genetic and phenotypic complexity of this group of disorders, and discusses novel approaches to help to address the challenges posed by the complexity of CKD.

    • Emily E. Groopman
    • , Gundula Povysil
    • , David. B. Goldstein
    •  & Ali G. Gharavi
  • Viewpoint |

    In this Viewpoint, we asked three individuals who have been affected by kidney failure for their views on the importance of understanding the drivers of kidney disease and, on a personal level, what they hope might be achieved with this information.

    • Keith D. Brown
    • , Catherine Campbell
    •  & Glenda V. Roberts
  • Review Article |

    Available data suggest that the prevalence and incidence of kidney stones is increasing; however, much of this variation might result from differences in approaches used to identify stone formers. This Review describes the need for a classification system to facilitate use of consistent terminology and enable meaningful comparisons of the burden of kidney stone disease across different populations.

    • Charat Thongprayoon
    • , Amy E. Krambeck
    •  & Andrew D. Rule
  • Review Article |

    Dialysis is a life-saving therapy; however, costs of dialysis are high, access is inequitable and outcomes are inadequate. This Review describes the current landscape of dialysis therapy from an epidemiological, economic, ethical and patient-centred framework, and describes initiatives that are aimed at stimulating innovations in the field to one that supports high-quality, high-value care.

    • Jonathan Himmelfarb
    • , Raymond Vanholder
    • , Rajnish Mehrotra
    •  & Marcello Tonelli
  • Review Article |

    Here, the authors describe the effector cell populations and immunosuppressive networks that are present in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumours. They also discuss the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors and novel approaches such as adoptive cell therapy in patients with RCC.

    • C. Marcela Díaz-Montero
    • , Brian I. Rini
    •  & James H. Finke
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, the authors summarize the basics of autophagy and the signalling pathways involved in its regulation, and examine the multiple roles of autophagy in kidney cells, from its involvement in kidney maintenance and responses to injury, to its potential contribution to glomerular and tubulointerstitial disease.

    • Chengyuan Tang
    • , Man J. Livingston
    • , Zhiwen Liu
    •  & Zheng Dong
  • Review Article |

    Purinergic signalling in the kidney maintains homeostasis and mediates injury-induced inflammation. The extracellular conversion of ATP into adenosine is critical for modulating these processes. Here, the authors discuss the pathological conditions associated with extracellular ATP metabolism and novel strategies for their treatment.

    • Karen M. Dwyer
    • , Bellamkonda K. Kishore
    •  & Simon C. Robson
  • Perspective |

    Here, the ASN-ERA-EDTA-ISN Joint Working Group on Ethical Issues in Nephrology highlights ten areas of ethical concern as priority challenges that require collaborative action and discusses the need for development of ethical training and guidance tools to manage these issues.

    • Dominique E. Martin
    • , David C. H. Harris
    • , Vivekanand Jha
    • , Luca Segantini
    • , Richard A. Demme
    • , Thu H. Le
    • , Laura McCann
    • , Jeff M. Sands
    • , Gerard Vong
    • , Paul Root Wolpe
    • , Monica Fontana
    • , Gerard M. London
    • , Bert Vanderhaegen
    • , Raymond Vanholder
    • , Dominique E. Martin
    • , David C. H. Harris
    • , Vivekanand Jha
    • , Luca Segantini
    • , Richard A. Demme
    • , Thu H. Le
    • , Laura McCann
    • , Jeff M. Sands
    • , Gerard Vong
    • , Paul Root Wolpe
    • , Monica Fontana
    • , Gerard M. London
    • , Bert Vanderhaegen
    •  & Raymond Vanholder
  • Review Article |

    Genomic profiling of renal cell carcinoma has demonstrated the clinical relevance of several genetic alterations in different disease subtypes. Pal and colleagues discuss the prognostic and predictive value of these alterations, and how they might help to improve treatment selection and patient outcomes.

    • Nazli Dizman
    • , Errol J. Philip
    •  & Sumanta K. Pal
  • Review Article |

    Emerging evidence suggests that plant-based diets could help to prevent chronic kidney disease (CKD), manage its symptoms and metabolic complications and delay disease progression. Here, the authors discuss the potential risks and benefits of these diets in patients with CKD, as well as implementation strategies and knowledge gaps.

    • Juan J. Carrero
    • , Ailema González-Ortiz
    • , Carla M. Avesani
    • , Stephan J. L. Bakker
    • , Vincenzo Bellizzi
    • , Philippe Chauveau
    • , Catherine M. Clase
    • , Adamasco Cupisti
    • , Angeles Espinosa-Cuevas
    • , Pablo Molina
    • , Karine Moreau
    • , Giorgina B. Piccoli
    • , Adrian Post
    • , Siren Sezer
    •  & Denis Fouque
  • Review Article |

    Sullivan and Susztak examine the process of translating data on genetic variants associated with common kidney diseases into information about the underlying disease mechanisms. The authors propose that identification of causal variants, genetic regulatory mechanisms, target-gene products and disease-associated phenotypes is crucial to this process.

    • Katie Marie Sullivan
    •  & Katalin Susztak
  • Review Article |

    Classification of kidney diseases according to their molecular mechanisms has potential to improve patient outcomes through the identification of targeted therapeutic approaches. This Review provides an overview of the ways in which omics and other data types can be integrated to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying kidney function and failure.

    • Sean Eddy
    • , Laura H. Mariani
    •  & Matthias Kretzler
  • Review Article |

    This Review describes advances in genomic analysis that have enabled novel genetic discoveries, more than doubled the number of genetic loci associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and uncovered several novel candidate genes for diabetes complications.

    • Joanne B. Cole
    •  & Jose C. Florez
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, the authors discuss general dendritic cell biology, including their development, trafficking and functional differentiation. The unique features of kidney dendritic cells are also examined, as well as their role in various acute and chronic types of kidney disease.

    • Christian Kurts
    • , Florent Ginhoux
    •  & Ulf Panzer
  • Consensus Statement
    | Open Access

    This expert Consensus Statement from the Pediatric Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (PCRRT) workgroup presents recommendations for the management of hyperammonaemia requiring kidney replacement therapy in paediatric populations. Additional studies are needed to strengthen these recommendations, which will be reviewed every 2 years.

    • Rupesh Raina
    • , Jirair K. Bedoyan
    • , Uta Lichter-Konecki
    • , Philippe Jouvet
    • , Stefano Picca
    • , Nicholas Ah Mew
    • , Marcel C. Machado
    • , Ronith Chakraborty
    • , Meghana Vemuganti
    • , Manpreet K. Grewal
    • , Timothy Bunchman
    • , Sidharth Kumar Sethi
    • , Vinod Krishnappa
    • , Mignon McCulloch
    • , Khalid Alhasan
    • , Arvind Bagga
    • , Rajit K. Basu
    • , Franz Schaefer
    • , Guido Filler
    •  & Bradley A. Warady
  • Review Article |

    Capasso and colleagues provide an overview of cognitive dysfunction resulting from CKD, including mild cognitive impairment and dementia. CKD-associated cognitive impairment seems to be caused by the effects of uraemic neurotoxins and kidney neurotrophins on specific neurons and regions of the brain.

    • Davide Viggiano
    • , Carsten A. Wagner
    • , Gianvito Martino
    • , Maiken Nedergaard
    • , Carmine Zoccali
    • , Robert Unwin
    •  & Giovambattista Capasso
  • Review Article |

    TonEBP is a DNA-binding protein with multiple roles, via transcription regulation and other mechanisms, in both protective and pathological responses to stress. In this Review, Kwon and colleagues discuss these multiple roles in various stress responses.

    • Soo Youn Choi
    • , Whaseon Lee-Kwon
    •  & Hyug Moo Kwon
  • Review Article |

    Vallon and Thompson provide a tubule-centred view of diabetic kidney physiology. According to the tubular hypothesis of nephron filtration and diabetic kidney disease, early diabetes induces changes in renal tubules that alter interactions between the tubule and glomerulus, ultimately leading to diabetic kidney disease.

    • Volker Vallon
    •  & Scott C. Thomson
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, the authors discuss current understanding of the expression and dysregulation of factors that regulate angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the kidney, as well as potential therapeutic strategies to target these factors during various kidney diseases.

    • Katsuyuki Tanabe
    • , Jun Wada
    •  & Yasufumi Sato
  • Review Article |

    The kidneys are essential for water and electrolyte homeostasis. This Review outlines the effect of tubular flow on renal electrolyte transport along the nephron and the current challenges in the emerging field of tubular flow dynamics in the kidney.

    • Eric H. J. Verschuren
    • , Charlotte Castenmiller
    • , Dorien J. M. Peters
    • , Francisco J. Arjona
    • , René J. M. Bindels
    •  & Joost G. J. Hoenderop
  • Review Article |

    Here, the authors review drivers of fibrogenesis, including epithelial cell injury, inflammation, regeneration pathways and factors that promote the AKI-to-CKD transition. They discuss direct targeting of fibrotic pathways and therapeutic approaches that have reportedly decreased kidney fibrosis in preclinical and/or clinical studies.

    • Marta Ruiz-Ortega
    • , Sandra Rayego-Mateos
    • , Santiago Lamas
    • , Alberto Ortiz
    •  & Raul R. Rodrigues-Diez
  • Review Article |

    An episode of acute kidney injury (AKI) can predispose individuals to a variety of adverse clinical outcomes. In this Review, the authors discuss the potential long-term outcomes of AKI, as well as current and novel strategies to improve the follow-up care of AKI survivors.

    • Matthew T. James
    • , Meha Bhatt
    • , Neesh Pannu
    •  & Marcello Tonelli
  • Review Article |

    Here, the authors outline the relationship between environmental change and kidney diseases and discuss the environmental impact of kidney care delivery, focusing on dialysis. They highlight existing opportunities to reduce the carbon footprint of nephrology, as well as areas for future research.

    • Katherine A. Barraclough
    •  & John W. M. Agar
  • Review Article |

    Hypertension is the leading global cause of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. In this Review, the authors describe the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension worldwide, as well as risk factors for hypertension and the financial burden of this disease.

    • Katherine T. Mills
    • , Andrei Stefanescu
    •  & Jiang He
  • Review Article |

    Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation contributes to the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Here, the authors discuss the mechanisms by which innate immune pathways might contribute to DKD as well as the therapeutic potential of targeting these pathways.

    • Sydney C. W. Tang
    •  & Wai Han Yiu
  • Review Article |

    Applying single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to human tissues can reveal the phenotypic diversity of resident and infiltrating cells at high resolution. In this Review, the authors examine important design considerations for applying this technology to kidney cells and discuss current findings from scRNA-seq studies of lupus nephritis.

    • Deepak A. Rao
    • , Arnon Arazi
    • , David Wofsy
    •  & Betty Diamond
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Stewart and colleagues describe how single-cell technologies, in particular single-cell RNA sequencing, can be used to map the complex immune landscape within organs, and how such technologies might provide insights into the role of the immune system in kidney health and disease pathogenesis.

    • Benjamin J. Stewart
    • , John R. Ferdinand
    •  & Menna R. Clatworthy
  • Review Article |

    Hepatorenal syndrome type 1 (HRS-1) is a specific type of acute kidney injury (AKI) that is largely considered a functional derangement that ultimately affects renal vasculature tone. This Review describes new insights that suggest that non-haemodynamic tubulo-toxic factors, such as endotoxins and bile acids, might mediate parenchymal renal injury in patients with cirrhosis, suggesting that concurrent mechanisms might contribute to the development of AKI in patients with cirrhosis.

    • Juan Carlos Q. Velez
    • , George Therapondos
    •  & Luis A. Juncos
  • Review Article |

    The field of nephrology has conducted fewer trials than other medical specialties. Here, the authors discuss how innovations in trial design and conduct could help achieve the goal of conducting a greater number of larger renal trials.

    • William G. Herrington
    • , Natalie Staplin
    •  & Richard Haynes
  • Review Article |

    Here, the authors discuss evidence for a role of NAD+ imbalance in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). They suggest that disruption of NAD+ metabolism may contribute to mechanistic links among AKI, CKD and ageing.

    • Kenneth M. Ralto
    • , Eugene P. Rhee
    •  & Samir M. Parikh
  • Review Article |

    Greater understanding of podocyte biology has improved our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to the development of nephrotic syndrome. Here, Saleem outlines how our understanding of disease mechanisms that contribute to nephrotic syndrome could transform the classification and treatment of this disease.

    • Moin A. Saleem
  • Review Article |

    Oncometabolites — conventional metabolites that, when aberrantly accumulated, have pro-oncogenic capabilities — have been implicated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Here, the authors review the role of oncometabolites in RCC, their origins and downstream effects and their potential applications as novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers.

    • Cissy Yong
    • , Grant D. Stewart
    •  & Christian Frezza
  • Perspective |

    This Perspectives article, written on behalf of the participants of the NIDDK Workshop on ‘Sex and the Kidneys’, considers opportunities for clinical, basic and translational research into sex differences in renal disease as well as the potential tools and resources needed to conduct this research.

    • C. Noel Bairey Merz
    • , Laura M. Dember
    • , Julie R. Ingelfinger
    • , Amanda Vinson
    • , Joel Neugarten
    • , Kathryn L. Sandberg
    • , Jennifer C. Sullivan
    • , Christine Maric-Bilkan
    • , Tracy L. Rankin
    • , Paul L. Kimmel
    •  & Robert A. Star
  • Review Article |

    Iron is essential for life but must be strictly regulated to avoid harmful effects. The authors discuss new insights into systemic and cellular iron handling with respect to renal physiology and pathology, current treatment practices and novel therapies for kidney disease.

    • Rachel P. L. van Swelm
    • , Jack F. M. Wetzels
    •  & Dorine. W. Swinkels
  • Perspective |

    The authors of this Perspectives article describe the physiological and statistical principles underlying measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). They discuss their limitations, the circumstances under which mGFR and eGFR should be used, and approaches to improve these methodologies.

    • Andrew S. Levey
    • , Josef Coresh
    • , Hocine Tighiouart
    • , Tom Greene
    •  & Lesley A. Inker
  • Review Article |

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is crucial to phosphate and calcium homeostasis. In this Review, the authors discuss how levels of biologically active FGF23 are controlled by balanced FGF23 transcription and protein cleavage, and how serum iron levels, inflammation and erythropoietin affect that balance.

    • Daniel Edmonston
    •  & Myles Wolf
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, the authors examine current efforts to develop a precision medicine approach that informs the diagnosis and treatment of patients with sepsis. Prognostic and predictive enrichment strategies in sepsis might also provide insight into the mechanisms that drive sepsis-associated acute kidney injury, a common complication of sepsis.

    • Natalja L. Stanski
    •  & Hector R. Wong
  • Review Article |

    Therapeutic modulation of hypoxia-inducible factors, which transduce adaptive transcriptional responses to hypoxia, is an emerging theme in kidney disease. This Review summarizes the hypoxia signalling mechanisms underpinning these novel treatments and highlights key remaining questions relevant to their clinical use.

    • Johannes Schödel
    •  & Peter J. Ratcliffe