Latest Reviews

  • Consensus Statement | | open

    This Consensus Statement developed on behalf of the Network for Early Onset Cystic Kidney Disease provides guidance on counselling, diagnosing and monitoring children with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease based on current evidence and a multi-stakeholder discussion of ethical issues.

    • Charlotte Gimpel
    • , Carsten Bergmann
    • , Detlef Bockenhauer
    • , Luc Breysem
    • , Melissa A. Cadnapaphornchai
    • , Metin Cetiner
    • , Jan Dudley
    • , Francesco Emma
    • , Martin Konrad
    • , Tess Harris
    • , Peter C. Harris
    • , Jens König
    • , Max C. Liebau
    • , Matko Marlais
    • , Djalila Mekahli
    • , Alison M. Metcalfe
    • , Jun Oh
    • , Ronald D. Perrone
    • , Manish D. Sinha
    • , Andrea Titieni
    • , Roser Torra
    • , Stefanie Weber
    • , Paul J. D. Winyard
    •  & Franz Schaefer
  • Review Article |

    Antimicrobial resistance is an emergent global problem and patients with chronic kidney disease have some of the highest rates of colonization and infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB). This Review focuses on the epidemiology, prevention and treatment of infections with ARB.

    • Tina Z. Wang
    • , Rosy Priya L. Kodiyanplakkal
    •  & David P. Calfee
  • Consensus Statement | | open

    In this Evidence-Based Guideline on X-linked hypophosphataemia, the authors identify the criteria for diagnosis of this disease, provide guidance for medical and surgical treatment and explain the challenges of follow-up.

    • Dieter Haffner
    • , Francesco Emma
    • , Deborah M. Eastwood
    • , Martin Biosse Duplan
    • , Justine Bacchetta
    • , Dirk Schnabel
    • , Philippe Wicart
    • , Detlef Bockenhauer
    • , Fernando Santos
    • , Elena Levtchenko
    • , Pol Harvengt
    • , Martha Kirchhoff
    • , Federico Di Rocco
    • , Catherine Chaussain
    • , Maria Louisa Brandi
    • , Lars Savendahl
    • , Karine Briot
    • , Peter Kamenicky
    • , Lars Rejnmark
    •  & Agnès Linglart
  • Review Article |

    The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) maintains protein homeostasis through the selective degradation of proteins. In addition to degrading short-lived and misfolded proteins, the UPS regulates a multitude of cellular processes, including gene transcription and translation, cell survival and metabolism, and inflammation. This Review provides an overview of UPS-mediated proteostasis, focusing on the involvement of the UPS in renal physiology and pathophysiology.

    • Catherine Meyer-Schwesinger
  • Review Article |

    Hypertension is one of the most common comorbid conditions that is associated with obesity. Here, the authors discuss the complex interactions between renal, hormonal and nervous system factors that link excess adiposity with elevated blood pressure.

    • John E. Hall
    • , Jussara M. do Carmo
    • , Alexandre A. da Silva
    • , Zhen Wang
    •  & Michael E. Hall
  • Review Article |

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by pathogenic mutations in the genes that encode polycystin 1 (PC1) and PC2. In this article, the authors discuss findings from structural and electrophysiological studies that give us insight into the function of polycystins and ADPKD pathogenesis.

    • Dominique Douguet
    • , Amanda Patel
    •  & Eric Honoré
  • Review Article |

    Effective adjuvant therapies are needed to reduce the risk of recurrence of kidney cancer. Here, the authors discuss the results of adjuvant therapy trials, the potential of immune checkpoint inhibitors as adjuvant therapies and the need for multidisciplinary management of patients with resected kidney cancer.

    • Camillo Porta
    • , Laura Cosmai
    • , Bradley C. Leibovich
    • , Thomas Powles
    • , Maurizio Gallieni
    •  & Axel Bex
  • Review Article |

    This Review describes the current understanding of the role of epigenetics and epigenomics in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and how epigenetic mechanisms might contribute to metabolic memory. The authors also discuss how epigenetic factors and non-coding RNAs could be used as biomarkers and drug targets for DKD diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.

    • Mitsuo Kato
    •  & Rama Natarajan
  • Review Article |

    Glycosylation refers to the addition of carbohydrate chains to proteins and lipids. In this Review, the authors discuss the broad role of glycans in immunity, cancer, xenotransplantation and glomerular filtration and the potential of ‘glycomedicine’.

    • Colin Reily
    • , Tyler J. Stewart
    • , Matthew B. Renfrow
    •  & Jan Novak
  • Review Article |

    This Review describes the reciprocal interactions between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, focusing on components of the immune system that drive chronic diseases that involve the kidney. The authors also discuss limitations of current approaches to microbiota research and emphasize the need to move beyond studies of correlation to causation.

    • Felix Knauf
    • , J. Richard Brewer
    •  & Richard A. Flavell
  • Review Article |

    Pre-eclampsia is associated with substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Here, the authors discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis and current and future treatment of pre-eclampsia with a focus on the role of angiogenic imbalance.

    • Elizabeth A. Phipps
    • , Ravi Thadhani
    • , Thomas Benzing
    •  & S. Ananth Karumanchi
  • Review Article |

    This Review describes the main signalling pathways that are coordinated by primary cilia to control developmental processes, tissue plasticity and organ function and how defects in the output of ciliary signalling events are coupled to developmental disorders and disease progression.

    • Zeinab Anvarian
    • , Kirk Mykytyn
    • , Saikat Mukhopadhyay
    • , Lotte Bang Pedersen
    •  & Søren Tvorup Christensen
  • Review Article |

    The plasma accumulation of uraemic solutes seen in chronic kidney disease is associated with dysregulated homeostasis. In this Review, Nigam and Bush discuss uraemic syndrome in the context of the remote sensing and signalling hypothesis, which describes small-molecule-mediated communication between tissues and organs.

    • Sanjay K. Nigam
    •  & Kevin T. Bush
  • Review Article |

    Wilms tumour is the most common renal malignancy of childhood. Here, the authors review the genetic landscape of Wilms tumour and discuss how precision medicine guided by genomic information might lead to new therapeutic approaches and improve patient survival.

    • Taryn Dora Treger
    • , Tanzina Chowdhury
    • , Kathy Pritchard-Jones
    •  & Sam Behjati
  • Review Article |

    This Review presents our current understanding of C3 glomerulopathy. Smith et al. discuss the histopathological diagnosis and the crucial pathogenic role of complement dysregulation. Genetic and acquired drivers of C3 glomerulopathy, potential biomarkers and available treatments are highlighted.

    • Richard J. H. Smith
    • , Gerald B. Appel
    • , Anna M. Blom
    • , H. Terence Cook
    • , Vivette D D’Agati
    • , Fadi Fakhouri
    • , Véronique Fremeaux-Bacchi
    • , Mihály Józsi
    • , David Kavanagh
    • , John D. Lambris
    • , Marina Noris
    • , Matthew C. Pickering
    • , Giuseppe Remuzzi
    • , Santiago Rodriguez de Córdoba
    • , Sanjeev Sethi
    • , Johan Van der Vlag
    • , Peter F. Zipfel
    •  & Carla M. Nester
  • Review Article |

    Macrophages are versatile immune cells that protect the host against infection but can also promote chronic inflammation and fibrosis. In this Review, the authors discuss the diverse roles of macrophages in acute and chronic renal pathology as well as potential therapeutic targets.

    • Patrick Ming-Kuen Tang
    • , David J. Nikolic-Paterson
    •  & Hui-Yao Lan
  • Review Article |

    Uraemic cardiomyopathy is the major phenotype of fatal cardiac disease in patients with end-stage renal disease. This Review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of uraemic cardiomyopathy, crosstalk between these mechanisms and implications for therapy

    • Xiaoliang Wang
    •  & Joseph I. Shapiro
  • Review Article |

    A growing body of evidence suggests that epigenetic regulation is involved in the process of acute kidney injury (AKI) and kidney repair. This Review provides a general overview of the main epigenetic mechanisms that have been linked to AKI and discusses the challenges and therapeutic implications of these findings.

    • Chunyuan Guo
    • , Guie Dong
    • , Xinling Liang
    •  & Zheng Dong
  • Review Article |

    The kidney is a highly vascularized organ and contains a remarkable diversity of endothelial cell populations. Here, the authors describe unique features of the healthy renal endothelium and the pathological mechanisms that can lead to endothelial damage in renal disease.

    • Noemie Jourde-Chiche
    • , Fadi Fakhouri
    • , Laetitia Dou
    • , Jeremy Bellien
    • , Stéphane Burtey
    • , Marie Frimat
    • , Pierre-André Jarrot
    • , Gilles Kaplanski
    • , Moglie Le Quintrec
    • , Vincent Pernin
    • , Claire Rigothier
    • , Marion Sallée
    • , Veronique Fremeaux-Bacchi
    • , Dominique Guerrot
    •  & Lubka T. Roumenina
  • Publisher Correction |

    • Nelson Leung
    • , Frank Bridoux
    • , Vecihi Batuman
    • , Aristeidis Chaidos
    • , Paul Cockwell
    • , Vivette D. D’Agati
    • , Angela Dispenzieri
    • , Fernando C. Fervenza
    • , Jean- Paul Fermand
    • , Simon Gibbs
    • , Julian D. Gillmore
    • , Guillermo A. Herrera
    • , Arnaud Jaccard
    • , Dragan Jevremovic
    • , Efstathios Kastritis
    • , Vishal Kukreti
    • , Robert A. Kyle
    • , Helen J. Lachmann
    • , Christopher P. Larsen
    • , Heinz Ludwig
    • , Glen S. Markowitz
    • , Giampaolo Merlini
    • , Peter Mollee
    • , Maria M. Picken
    • , Vincent S. Rajkumar
    • , Virginie Royal
    • , Paul W. Sanders
    • , Sanjeev Sethi
    • , Christopher P. Venner
    • , Peter M. Voorhees
    • , Ashutosh D. Wechalekar
    • , Brendan M. Weiss
    •  & Samih H. Nasr
  • Author Correction |

    • Charles J. Ferro
    • , Patrick B. Mark
    • , Mehmet Kanbay
    • , Pantelis Sarafidis
    • , Gunnar H. Heine
    • , Patrick Rossignol
    • , Ziad A. Massy
    • , Francesca Mallamaci
    • , Jose M. Valdivielso
    • , Jolanta Malyszko
    • , Marianne C. Verhaar
    • , Robert Ekart
    • , Raymond Vanholder
    • , Gerard London
    • , Alberto Ortiz
    •  & Carmine Zoccali
  • Perspective |

    In this Perspectives article, Porrini and colleagues appraise the results of studies that have compared the performance of formulae developed to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) against measured GFR reference methods. They contend that the persistence of errors in GFR estimation formulae indicates an inadequacy of serum creatinine and cystatin C levels as markers of actual renal function.

    • Esteban Porrini
    • , Piero Ruggenenti
    • , Sergio Luis-Lima
    • , Fabiola Carrara
    • , Alejandro Jiménez
    • , Aiko P. J. de Vries
    • , Armando Torres
    • , Flavio Gaspari
    •  & Giuseppe Remuzzi
  • Review Article |

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates phosphate homeostasis by modulating renal phosphate absorption, vitamin D metabolism and parathyroid hormone secretion. In this Review, Marc Vervloet discusses the role of FGF23 on phosphate regulation as well as its additional effects in the cardiovascular and immune systems.

    • Marc Vervloet
  • Consensus Statement | | open

    This Expert Consensus Document from the International Kidney and Monoclonal Gammopathy Research Group includes an updated definition of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) and recommendations for the use of kidney biopsy and other modalities for evaluating suspected MGRS

    • Nelson Leung
    • , Frank Bridoux
    • , Vecihi Batuman
    • , Aristeidis Chaidos
    • , Paul Cockwell
    • , Vivette D. D’Agati
    • , Angela Dispenzieri
    • , Fernando C. Fervenza
    • , Jean-Paul Fermand
    • , Simon Gibbs
    • , Julian D. Gillmore
    • , Guillermo A. Herrera
    • , Arnaud Jaccard
    • , Dragan Jevremovic
    • , Efstathios Kastritis
    • , Vishal Kukreti
    • , Robert A. Kyle
    • , Helen J. Lachmann
    • , Christopher P. Larsen
    • , Heinz Ludwig
    • , Glen S. Markowitz
    • , Giampaolo Merlini
    • , Peter Mollee
    • , Maria M. Picken
    • , Vincent S. Rajkumar
    • , Virginie Royal
    • , Paul W. Sanders
    • , Sanjeev Sethi
    • , Christopher P. Venner
    • , Peter M. Voorhees
    • , Ashutosh D. Wechalekar
    • , Brendan M. Weiss
    •  & Samih H. Nasr
  • Review Article |

    This Review describes the epidemiology and mechanisms underlying the reciprocal relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The authors also discuss recommended treatment approaches for patients with HCV infection and CKD, and outline remaining issues in the field.

    • Stanislas Pol
    • , Lucia Parlati
    •  & Michel Jadoul
  • Review Article |

    Klotho proteins are crucial elements of the receptor complex for the endocrine fibroblast growth factors FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23. In this Review, Makoto Kuro-o discusses the functions of the FGF–Klotho endocrine systems in health and disease, including their role in ageing-related disorders.

    • Makoto Kuro-o
  • Review Article |

    Autoimmune diseases and kidney transplantation can result in immune-mediated kidney pathology. In this Review, the authors discuss the roles of effector and regulatory B cells and the efficacy of B cell-targeting therapies in these settings.

    • Kristine Oleinika
    • , Claudia Mauri
    •  & Alan D. Salama
  • Review Article |

    The complement system has a key role in inflammatory reactions that occur before, during and after transplantation. Here, the authors discuss this role and highlight current and future strategies to regulate complement activation and potentially improve outcomes in kidney transplantation.

    • Ali-Reza Biglarnia
    • , Markus Huber-Lang
    • , Camilla Mohlin
    • , Kristina N. Ekdahl
    •  & Bo Nilsson
  • Review Article |

    This Review focuses on the epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of dyslipidaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease. The authors discuss emerging clinical data on the use of novel lipid-lowering agents and reappraise the 2013 KDIGO Guidelines for Lipid Management in CKD.

    • Charles J. Ferro
    • , Patrick B. Mark
    • , Mehmet Kanbay
    • , Pantelis Sarafidis
    • , Gunnar H. Heine
    • , Patrick Rossignol
    • , Ziad A. Massy
    • , Francesca Mallamaci
    • , Jose M. Valdivielso
    • , Jolanta Malyszko
    • , Marianne C. Verhaar
    • , Robert Ekart
    • , Raymond Vanholder
    • , Gerard London
    • , Alberto Ortiz
    •  & Carmine Zoccali
  • Review Article |

    Here, Johnson and Xue describe various physiological and psychosocial challenges that lead to the sensitization of hypertension. These challenges drive neuroplasticity in the brain network controlling sympathetic tone and blood pressure, and provide a new paradigm for understanding essential hypertension.

    • Alan Kim Johnson
    •  & Baojian Xue
  • Review Article |

    Here, Lam and colleagues review advances in understanding the pathogenesis of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Although rapalogues are effective cytostatic treatments for TSC, the unique metabolic vulnerabilities of cells lacking hamartin and/or tuberin might represent opportunities for developing cytocidal treatments.

    • Hilaire C. Lam
    • , Brian J. Siroky
    •  & Elizabeth P. Henske
  • Review Article |

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a life-threatening complication in critically-ill neonates. This Review explores the evidence that intrauterine growth restriction, premature birth and low birth weight contribute to neonatal AKI, and discusses perinatal and postnatal risk factors that enhance the risk of AKI among neonates.

    • Norberto Perico
    • , David Askenazi
    • , Monica Cortinovis
    •  & Giuseppe Remuzzi
  • Review Article |

    This Review explores the mechanistic links underlying the associations between HLA and kidney diseases. The authors discuss how these links might provide insights into disease pathogenesis and describe the clinical implications of these insights.

    • Kate J. Robson
    • , Joshua D. Ooi
    • , Stephen R. Holdsworth
    • , Jamie Rossjohn
    •  & A. Richard Kitching
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Bonny and Firsov describe the circadian rhythmicity in various renal functions and how disruption or alteration of the circadian clock is associated with kidney dysfunction and disease.

    • Dmitri Firsov
    •  & Olivier Bonny
  • Review Article |

    In this plenary Review, Hoste and colleagues describe the global epidemiology of acute kidney injury (AKI). The influence of modifiable and non-modifiable AKI risk factors, delayed diagnosis, variation in diagnostic criteria and disparities in access to health care are also discussed.

    • Eric A. J. Hoste
    • , John A. Kellum
    • , Nicholas M. Selby
    • , Alexander Zarbock
    • , Paul M. Palevsky
    • , Sean M. Bagshaw
    • , Stuart L. Goldstein
    • , Jorge Cerdá
    •  & Lakhmir S. Chawla
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Caplan and colleagues describe the metabolic alterations in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and how these might be novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of polycystic kidney disease.

    • Valeria Padovano
    • , Christine Podrini
    • , Alessandra Boletta
    •  & Michael J. Caplan
  • Review Article |

    The application of precision gene editing has great potential to accelerate basic research and advance clinical practice in nephrology. Here, the authors discuss this technology and the challenges and potential of genome editing in the kidney.

    • Zachary WareJoncas
    • , Jarryd M. Campbell
    • , Gabriel Martínez-Gálvez
    • , William A. C. Gendron
    • , Michael A. Barry
    • , Peter C. Harris
    • , Caroline R. Sussman
    •  & Stephen C. Ekker
  • Review Article |

    This Review updates the evidence base for the administration of intravenous fluids to critically ill patients. Finfer and colleagues also discuss unresolved questions, such as whether buffered solutions are better than normal saline, and the benefits and harms of restrictive approaches to fluid administration.

    • Simon Finfer
    • , John Myburgh
    •  & Rinaldo Bellomo
  • Review Article |

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have led to a paradigm shift in cancer therapy; however, these agents can induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in off-target organs. This Review describes the mechanism of action of ICI therapies and how these agents induce irAEs in the kidney and heart.

    • Krishna Sury
    • , Mark A. Perazella
    •  & Anushree C. Shirali
  • Review Article |

    Improved understanding of HLAs together with advances in HLA typing and antibody detection techniques have enabled transplantation of sensitized patients. Here, the authors discuss these advances as well as novel approaches to desensitization, immunomodulation and tolerance induction.

    • Robert A. Montgomery
    • , Vasishta S. Tatapudi
    • , Mary S. Leffell
    •  & Andrea A. Zachary
  • Perspective |

    This Perspectives article describes supporting and contradicting data regarding the role of podocyte B7-1 in the pathogenesis of various podocytopathies and highlights issues that need to be addressed to standardize approaches to the study of this protein.

    • Rubina Novelli
    • , Ariela Benigni
    •  & Giuseppe Remuzzi
  • Review Article |

    Renal pericytes have important roles in kidney development, blood pressure regulation and the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Here, the authors review the embryonic development, adult tissue distribution and physiological and pathological roles of the various pericyte subsets in the kidney.

    • Isaac Shaw
    • , Sebastien Rider
    • , John Mullins
    • , Jeremy Hughes
    •  & Bruno Péault
  • Review Article |

    Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) have attracted much attention for their ability to regulate inflammatory processes. Here, Shi et al. discuss current understanding of the immunomodulatory mechanisms of MSCs and issues related to their therapeutic application.

    • Yufang Shi
    • , Yu Wang
    • , Qing Li
    • , Keli Liu
    • , Jianquan Hou
    • , Changshun Shao
    •  & Ying Wang
  • Review Article |

    Kidney transplant recipients have an increased risk of developing de novo or recurrent cancer compared with age-matched and gender-matched individuals from the general population. Here, Au et al. describe the epidemiology and outcomes of cancers in transplant recipients and discuss approaches to reduce cancer prevalence as well as post-transplantation cancer management, including approaches for modulating immunosuppression.

    • Eric Au
    • , Germaine Wong
    •  & Jeremy R. Chapman
  • Review Article |

    Technological advances are providing unprecedented opportunities to analyse biological systems at the single-cell level. This Review describes the fundamental concepts of single-cell RNA analysis and specific applications of the technology for the study of development, cancer and normal and diseased kidneys.

    • S. Steven Potter
  • Review Article |

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by the activation of intra-renal haemostatic and inflammatory processes. Here, the authors discuss the role of platelets as modulators of inflammation and haemostasis at the site of vascular injury, their interactions with endothelial cells and leukocytes and current antiplatelet strategies in AKI.

    • Marcel P. B. Jansen
    • , Sandrine Florquin
    •  & Joris J. T. H. Roelofs