Latest Research

  • Review Article |

    In this Review, the authors discuss the renal mechanism of salt-sensitive hypertension induced by malnutrition during pregnancy, obesity in adult life and ageing. They also describe the epigenetic mechanisms that potentially contribute to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension in these settings.

    • Wakako Kawarazaki
    •  & Toshiro Fujita
  • Review Article |

    Multiple pathophysiological disturbances contribute to the onset and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This Review describes these pathogenic processes and discusses the ability of sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors to correct or improve many of these processes, which are likely to underlie the ability of these agents to slow progression of established diabetic kidney disease.

    • Ralph A. DeFronzo
    • , W. Brian Reeves
    •  & Alaa S. Awad
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, the authors examine the physiological heterogeneity of different kidney compartments and consider how the local oxygen supply and the capacity for metabolic adaptation of different nephron segments might influence their response to changes in oxygen availability and their susceptibility to injury.

    • Holger Scholz
    • , Felix J. Boivin
    •  & Pontus B. Persson
  • Review Article |

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to the coordinated orientation of cells in the tissue plane and is important for several key morphogenetic and homeostatic processes. This Review describes the origins of PCP signalling, its activity and cellular targets, with an emphasis on the PCP pathway in kidney development, function and disease.

    • Elena Torban
    •  & Sergei Y. Sokol
  • Consensus Statement |

    Here, experts from the European Reference Network for Kidney Diseases and the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology present recommendations for the management of congenital nephrotic syndrome, including the use of renin–angiotensin system inhibitors, diuretics, anticoagulation and infection prophylaxis.

    • Olivia Boyer
    • , Franz Schaefer
    •  & Marina Vivarelli
  • Review Article |

    Calcium oxalate kidney stones are often found attached to Randall’s plaques in the kidney papilla. Here, the authors examine the mechanisms underlying the formation of Randall’s plaques, including the role of mineralization modulators, as well as inflammation and immune cells.

    • Saeed R. Khan
    • , Benjamin K. Canales
    •  & Paul R. Dominguez-Gutierrez
  • Review Article |

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has roles in acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease and abnormal kidney repair. Here, the authors discuss the role of mitochondrial quality control mechanisms in kidney injury and repair and highlight their potential as therapeutic targets.

    • Chengyuan Tang
    • , Juan Cai
    •  & Zheng Dong
  • Review Article |

    Clinical trials have demonstrated that glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) agonists have therapeutic benefits beyond glycaemic control. Here, the authors examine the protective effects of incretin-based therapies in patients with diabetic kidney disease and how the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of GLP1 might underlie this protection.

    • Radica Z. Alicic
    • , Emily J. Cox
    •  & Katherine R. Tuttle
  • Review Article |

    Working towards sustainable development is essential to tackle the rise in the global burden of non-communicable diseases, including kidney disease. Five years after the Sustainable Development Goal agenda was set, this Review examines the progress thus far, highlighting future challenges and opportunities, and explores the implications for kidney disease.

    • Valerie A. Luyckx
    • , Ziyad Al-Aly
    •  & John Stanifer
  • Review Article |

    Here, the authors describe the mechanisms of ultrafiltration during kidney replacement therapy, the effects of ultrafiltration on cardiovascular physiology and the principles of volume management in critically ill patients. They also discuss potential mechanisms that could underlie the association between ultrafiltration rate and organ dysfunction.

    • Raghavan Murugan
    • , Rinaldo Bellomo
    •  & John A. Kellum
  • Review Article |

    The molecular features that define the initiation and progression of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are being increasingly defined. This Review summarizes common genomic and chromosomal copy number abnormalities in ccRCC, providing a mechanistic framework with which to organize these features into initiating events, drivers of progression and factors that confer lethality.

    • Eric Jonasch
    • , Cheryl Lyn Walker
    •  & W. Kimryn Rathmell
  • Review Article |

    This Review describes our current understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), focusing on the immunological hyper-response and the induction of widespread endothelial damage, complement-associated blood clotting and systemic microangiopathy, as well as the effects of these processes on the kidney. The authors also discuss therapeutic interventions that currently hold most promise.

    • Luca Perico
    • , Ariela Benigni
    •  & Giuseppe Remuzzi
  • Consensus Statement
    | Open Access

    COVID-19-associated AKI (COVID-19 AKI) is associated with high mortality and is an independent risk factor for all-cause in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19. This Consensus Statement from the Acute Disease Quality Initiative provides recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and management of COVID-19 AKI and for areas of future research, with the aim of improving understanding of the underlying processes and outcomes for patients with COVID-19 AKI.

    • Mitra K. Nadim
    • , Lui G. Forni
    •  & John A. Kellum
  • Review Article |

    Technological advances continue to expand the use of proteomics in medicine. In this Review, the authors discuss proteomics research findings in nephrology and the potential, as well as the limitations, of using proteomics techniques to uncover disease mechanisms and develop new therapeutic strategies.

    • Markus M. Rinschen
    •  & Julio Saez-Rodriguez
  • Perspective |

    SGLT2 inhibitors induce a number of metabolic adaptations in response to increased glucose and Na+ excretion. This Perspective article describes how these adaptations suggest that SGLT2 inhibition triggers a body water-conserving mechanism, and discusses how these metabolic adjustments may contribute to the favourable cardiovascular and renal outcomes of this class of therapeutics.

    • Adriana Marton
    • , Tatsuroh Kaneko
    •  & Jens Titze
  • Review Article |

    Many children die from preventable and/or treatable kidney disease in low-resource settings. Here, the authors examine strategies to improve the care of these children, including the need to invest in disease prevention and early detection, promote disease awareness and education, and adapt treatments to expand provision.

    • Mignon McCulloch
    • , Valerie A. Luyckx
    •  & William E. Smoyer
  • Review Article |

    Here, the authors discuss the mechanisms by which food and specific nutrients could affect the uraemic phenotype in chronic kidney disease (CKD). They suggest that a food-as-medicine approach could potentially be used to prevent and treat CKD and its complications.

    • Denise Mafra
    • , Natalia A. Borges
    •  & Peter Stenvinkel
  • Review Article |

    Acute kidney injury is a common complication of trauma. Here, the authors examine how, in addition to direct trauma to the kidneys, the pathophysiological responses to traumatic injuries in distant organs, including immune responses, can result in kidney dysfunction.

    • David A. C. Messerer
    • , Rebecca Halbgebauer
    •  & Markus Huber-Lang