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  • In this Review, the authors provide an overview of the roles of miRNAs in the development of chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury and allograft injury. They also discuss the utilization of miRNAs as biomarkers and their potential as therapeutic targets in kidney disease.

    • Nassim Mahtal
    • Olivia Lenoir
    • Pierre-Louis Tharaux
    Review Article
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often well advanced before it is detected. Although polygenic scores may enable the early stratification of patients at risk of CKD, the transferability of polygenic scores for the prediction of CKD to populations of non-European ancestry was limited. A new cross-ancestry polygenic score for CKD overcomes these issues, demonstrating good performance across ancestries.

    • Inga Steinbrenner
    • Anna Köttgen
    News & Views
  • Cellular senescence has beneficial functions in embryonic development, wound healing and tumour suppression but can also be maladaptive, contributing to cancer development and disease. This Review describes the mechanisms, hallmarks and consequences of senescence, as well as the therapeutic potential of senescence-targeting interventions.

    • Weijun Huang
    • LaTonya J. Hickson
    • Lilach O. Lerman
    Review Article
  • Kidney disease is an underappreciated medical complication of anorexia nervosa. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanisms that drive kidney disease in patients who restrict caloric intake or engage in purging. Education and awareness are also needed, because kidney disease is often under-recognized by these patients and their clinicians.

    • Leah Puckett
    • Shoshana Mehler
    • Philip Mehler
  • Two recent randomized trials provide evidence to guide the management of sepsis. The CLASSIC trial reports that restrictive fluid therapy has no mortality benefit compared to a standard regimen in patients with septic shock, whereas the LOVIT trial reports that high-dose intravenous vitamin C might be harmful in patients with severe sepsis.

    • Mark Philip Plummer
    • Rinaldo Bellomo
    News & Views
  • Necroptosis is a form of regulated necrosis in which RIPK3 is activated by binding to RIP homotypic interaction motif (RHIM)-containing proteins. Now, researchers describe a non-canonical pathway of RIPK3 activation that is triggered by osmotic stress and NHE1-mediated cytosol alkalinization. This previously undescribed mechanism of osmotic stress-induced necroptosis might have implications for treating cancer and other diseases.

    • Alberto Ortiz
    • Ana B. Sanz
    News & Views
  • Indigenous Māori experience inequitably high rates of kidney failure and lower rates of kidney transplant, pre-emptive procedures and home dialysis when compared to the New Zealand population as a whole. Prevention strategies in primary care, cultural safety training and routine clinical audit for renal practitioners alongside Indigenous people in governance, management and the clinical workforce would greatly improve Māori outcomes.

    • David Tipene-Leach
    • Rachael Walker
  • Alloimmune T cell responses have a crucial role in graft rejection. Here, the authors examine the factors that regulate T cell activation, differentiation and function in secondary lymphoid organs and in the graft, including the different pathways of allorecognition, innate–adaptive immunity crosstalk and the role of survival cytokines.

    • Charlotte Duneton
    • Pamela D. Winterberg
    • Mandy L. Ford
    Review Article
  • Our understanding of nephrogenesis has been aided by studies that have compared features of human and mouse nephrogenesis, and by technological advances in single-cell omics and high-resolution imaging techniques. This Review describes current understanding of nephron patterning, focusing on the processes by which nephron progenitors are recruited into the developing nephron.

    • Jack Schnell
    • MaryAnne Achieng
    • Nils Olof Lindström
    Review Article
  • The interplay between immunological and metabolic processes is important in a variety of processes. This Review describes how changes in lipid and energy metabolism, driven by receptors of the innate immune system, contribute to the response of tubule epithelial cells to injury and the functional consequences of these intersecting pathways in kidney health and disease.

    • Sanne van der Rijt
    • Jaklien C. Leemans
    • Alessandra Tammaro
    Review Article
  • The fibrogenic niche is a unique tissue microenvironment that promotes fibroblast activation in organ fibrosis. This Review discusses the composition, function and mechanisms of action of the fibrogenic niche in kidney fibrosis, as well as the potential implications of the fibrogenic niche hypothesis for the future diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases.

    • Li Li
    • Haiyan Fu
    • Youhua Liu
    Review Article