Browse Articles

  • News & Views |

    The SONAR trial reports that treatment with the selective endothelin A receptor antagonist atrasentan reduced the risk of renal events in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease. This study was designed to select patients who were likely to benefit from the therapy and minimize the risk of adverse effects.

    • Jennifer S. Pollock
    •  & David M. Pollock
  • Review Article |

    Various cell types release extracellular DNA traps that protect the host against microbial infections. In this Review, the authors discuss how DNA traps not only participate in pathogen clearance but can also promote vascular disease and autoimmunity.

    • Christoph Daniel
    • , Moritz Leppkes
    • , Luis E. Muñoz
    • , Gunnar Schley
    • , Georg Schett
    •  & Martin Herrmann
  • News & Views |

    In a collaborative effort, researchers have identified unusual protein deposits of exostosin 1 and exostosin 2 in patients with PLA2R and THSD7A-negative membranous nephropathy, many of whom had systemic lupus erythematosus, lupus nephritis or other forms of autoimmunity. Although serum exostosin antibodies were not detected, the findings suggest that these proteins could define a distinct subtype of membranous nephropathy.

    • Hans-Joachim Anders
  • Consensus Statement | | open

    This Evidence-Based Guideline developed by members of the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology CKD-MBD, Dialysis and Transplantation working groups presents clinical practice recommendations for the use of growth hormone in children with chronic kidney disease on dialysis and after renal transplantation.

    • Jens Drube
    • , Mandy Wan
    • , Marjolein Bonthuis
    • , Elke Wühl
    • , Justine Bacchetta
    • , Fernando Santos
    • , Ryszard Grenda
    • , Alberto Edefonti
    • , Jerome Harambat
    • , Rukshana Shroff
    • , Burkhard Tönshoff
    •  & Dieter Haffner
  • Comment |

    To advance kidney discovery, our community is driven to maximize the utility of genomic data that we all generate. We can best accomplish this through excellence in appropriately incorporating publicly available genomic data into our research efforts and by enthusiastically embracing widespread data sharing in a manner that facilitates its broad use.

    • Matthew G. Sampson
    •  & Hyun Min Kang
  • Review Article |

    This Review describes the mechanisms by which dietary, hormonal and metabolic factors regulate the expression and function of sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporters. The authors discuss the consequences of dysregulated phosphate transport and how understanding of the structure–function relationships of the transporters provides insights into their transport mechanisms.

    • Moshe Levi
    • , Enrico Gratton
    • , Ian C. Forster
    • , Nati Hernando
    • , Carsten A. Wagner
    • , Juerg Biber
    • , Victor Sorribas
    •  & Heini Murer
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, the authors discuss the biology of canonical and non-canonical inflammasomes and inflammasome-forming genes in the kidney, including their different functions in the various kidney compartments and their potential as therapeutic targets.

    • Takanori Komada
    •  & Daniel A. Muruve
  • Review Article |

    Here, the authors discuss the multiple functions of the (pro)renin receptor in physiological processes, including blood pressure regulation, energy metabolism and autophagy, as well as its roles in the pathogenesis of diseases including fibrosis, chronic kidney disease, pre-eclampsia and cancer.

    • Atsuhiro Ichihara
    •  & Midori Sasaki Yatabe
  • Consensus Statement | | open

    This Consensus Statement developed on behalf of the Network for Early Onset Cystic Kidney Disease provides guidance on counselling, diagnosing and monitoring children with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease based on current evidence and a multi-stakeholder discussion of ethical issues.

    • Charlotte Gimpel
    • , Carsten Bergmann
    • , Detlef Bockenhauer
    • , Luc Breysem
    • , Melissa A. Cadnapaphornchai
    • , Metin Cetiner
    • , Jan Dudley
    • , Francesco Emma
    • , Martin Konrad
    • , Tess Harris
    • , Peter C. Harris
    • , Jens König
    • , Max C. Liebau
    • , Matko Marlais
    • , Djalila Mekahli
    • , Alison M. Metcalfe
    • , Jun Oh
    • , Ronald D. Perrone
    • , Manish D. Sinha
    • , Andrea Titieni
    • , Roser Torra
    • , Stefanie Weber
    • , Paul J. D. Winyard
    •  & Franz Schaefer
  • Review Article |

    Antimicrobial resistance is an emergent global problem and patients with chronic kidney disease have some of the highest rates of colonization and infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB). This Review focuses on the epidemiology, prevention and treatment of infections with ARB.

    • Tina Z. Wang
    • , Rosy Priya L. Kodiyanplakkal
    •  & David P. Calfee
  • Consensus Statement | | open

    In this Evidence-Based Guideline on X-linked hypophosphataemia, the authors identify the criteria for diagnosis of this disease, provide guidance for medical and surgical treatment and explain the challenges of follow-up.

    • Dieter Haffner
    • , Francesco Emma
    • , Deborah M. Eastwood
    • , Martin Biosse Duplan
    • , Justine Bacchetta
    • , Dirk Schnabel
    • , Philippe Wicart
    • , Detlef Bockenhauer
    • , Fernando Santos
    • , Elena Levtchenko
    • , Pol Harvengt
    • , Martha Kirchhoff
    • , Federico Di Rocco
    • , Catherine Chaussain
    • , Maria Louisa Brandi
    • , Lars Savendahl
    • , Karine Briot
    • , Peter Kamenicky
    • , Lars Rejnmark
    •  & Agnès Linglart
  • News & Views |

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in young adults with incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Unlike children with ESRD, young adults with incident ESRD have high prevalence of diabetes, coronary artery disease and heart failure. These cardiovascular risk factors are associated with increased CVD-related hospitalizations and mortality in young adults.

    • Elaine Ku
    •  & Mark M. Mitsnefes
  • Review Article |

    The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) maintains protein homeostasis through the selective degradation of proteins. In addition to degrading short-lived and misfolded proteins, the UPS regulates a multitude of cellular processes, including gene transcription and translation, cell survival and metabolism, and inflammation. This Review provides an overview of UPS-mediated proteostasis, focusing on the involvement of the UPS in renal physiology and pathophysiology.

    • Catherine Meyer-Schwesinger
  • Review Article |

    Hypertension is one of the most common comorbid conditions that is associated with obesity. Here, the authors discuss the complex interactions between renal, hormonal and nervous system factors that link excess adiposity with elevated blood pressure.

    • John E. Hall
    • , Jussara M. do Carmo
    • , Alexandre A. da Silva
    • , Zhen Wang
    •  & Michael E. Hall
  • News & Views |

    New data from the JAVELIN Renal 101 and KEYNOTE-426 trials provide evidence that immune-based combination therapy has superior efficacy to sunitinib monotherapy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. The new findings raise important questions regarding the optimum choice of combination therapy for these patients.

    • Camillo Porta
    •  & Mimma Rizzo
  • Review Article |

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by pathogenic mutations in the genes that encode polycystin 1 (PC1) and PC2. In this article, the authors discuss findings from structural and electrophysiological studies that give us insight into the function of polycystins and ADPKD pathogenesis.

    • Dominique Douguet
    • , Amanda Patel
    •  & Eric Honoré
  • News & Views |

    A new study used genome-wide association data and Mendelian randomization to investigate associations between the gut microbiome and metabolic traits. The researchers demonstrate that host genetic variants influence levels of the short-chain fatty acids butyrate and propionate in the gut, which in turn modulate host glycaemic metabolism.

    • Wei Ling Lau
    •  & Nosratola D. Vaziri
  • Review Article |

    Effective adjuvant therapies are needed to reduce the risk of recurrence of kidney cancer. Here, the authors discuss the results of adjuvant therapy trials, the potential of immune checkpoint inhibitors as adjuvant therapies and the need for multidisciplinary management of patients with resected kidney cancer.

    • Camillo Porta
    • , Laura Cosmai
    • , Bradley C. Leibovich
    • , Thomas Powles
    • , Maurizio Gallieni
    •  & Axel Bex
  • News & Views |

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often clinically silent and traditional clinical data alone cannot differentiate disease subtypes. A recent study of the genetic basis of CKD in adults that examined the prevalence of monogenic kidney disease aetiologies supports the use of genetic analysis to improve diagnostics and treatment in CKD.

    • Asaf Vivante
    •  & Karl Skorecki
  • Review Article |

    This Review describes the current understanding of the role of epigenetics and epigenomics in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and how epigenetic mechanisms might contribute to metabolic memory. The authors also discuss how epigenetic factors and non-coding RNAs could be used as biomarkers and drug targets for DKD diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.

    • Mitsuo Kato
    •  & Rama Natarajan
  • Review Article |

    Glycosylation refers to the addition of carbohydrate chains to proteins and lipids. In this Review, the authors discuss the broad role of glycans in immunity, cancer, xenotransplantation and glomerular filtration and the potential of ‘glycomedicine’.

    • Colin Reily
    • , Tyler J. Stewart
    • , Matthew B. Renfrow
    •  & Jan Novak
  • News & Views |

    Haemodialysis options for undocumented immigrants with end-stage renal disease range from standard of care thrice-weekly treatments to emergency-only haemodialysis. This latter approach is associated with poor patient outcomes and high costs. The time has come for the nephrology community to demand an end to the practice of emergency-only haemodialysis.

    • Rudolph A. Rodriguez
  • Review Article |

    This Review describes the reciprocal interactions between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, focusing on components of the immune system that drive chronic diseases that involve the kidney. The authors also discuss limitations of current approaches to microbiota research and emphasize the need to move beyond studies of correlation to causation.

    • Felix Knauf
    • , J. Richard Brewer
    •  & Richard A. Flavell
  • News & Views |

    The PIVOTAL trial shows that proactive intravenous (i.v.) iron administration reduces cardiovascular events and deaths, transfusions and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent doses and does not increase infections in patients on haemodialysis. These findings upend the warnings of guidelines and experts about the dangers of i.v. iron and prove that maintaining low iron stores is harmful.

    • Daniel W. Coyne
  • Review Article |

    Pre-eclampsia is associated with substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Here, the authors discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis and current and future treatment of pre-eclampsia with a focus on the role of angiogenic imbalance.

    • Elizabeth A. Phipps
    • , Ravi Thadhani
    • , Thomas Benzing
    •  & S. Ananth Karumanchi
  • News & Views |

    A new study reports that human blood vessel organoids can be generated through the directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. Use of these blood vessel organoids to model diabetic vasculopathy led to the identification of a new potential therapeutic target, suggesting that this system could have translational value for studies of diabetes complications.

    • Ryuji Morizane
  • News & Views |

    A reduction in proteinuria and albuminuria has long been proposed as a surrogate biomarker for clinically validated end points for interventional trials in patients with kidney disease. Taken together, the findings of two recent landmark meta-analyses present a formidable argument favouring such surrogacy but some uncertainty remains.

    • Richard J. Glassock