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  • Despite the availability of effective therapies, the majority of patients with hypertension have poor blood pressure control. Key advances in 2023 have the potential to lead to better treatment adherence and control of blood pressure as well as providing new understanding of postmenopausal hypertension, which may lead to improved therapies.

    • Kate M. Denton
    Year in Review
  • Basic discovery and clinical trials in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) have continued to be reported in 2023 despite the disruption of research activity by COVID-19 in recent years. Advances in clinical trials and emerging ways to diagnose, monitor and treat DKD dominate the current literature.

    • Sarah J. Glastras
    • Carol A. Pollock
    Year in Review
  • Improved understanding of the impact of sex and gender-related factors on human health and disease and the inclusion of people of all genders in research studies is necessary to reduce health inequities and enable a more personalized approach to patient care.

  • Sex differences in immune cell function and immune responses affect the development and outcome of diverse diseases. Here, the authors review current understanding of sex differences in immunity. They describe the key mechanisms that mediate sex differences in immune responses and discuss the functional relevance of such differences for immune-related diseases.

    • Shannon E. Dunn
    • Whitney A. Perry
    • Sabra L. Klein
    Review Article
  • Emerging evidence suggests that cells resident within organs — both immune and parenchymal — can facilitate the instigation and propagation of tissue injury. In this Review, the authors discuss findings that suggest that kidney parenchymal cells provide structural immunity to the kidney through the regulation of immune-relevant processes, with consequences for kidney inflammation and injury.

    • George C. Tsokos
    • Afroditi Boulougoura
    • Hao Li
    Review Article
  • Improved understanding of kidney disease from a sex- and gender-specific perspective is needed to improve patient care. Here, the authors discuss differences in the epidemiology, management and outcomes of acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease and kidney failure in men and women.

    • Nicholas C. Chesnaye
    • Juan Jesus Carrero
    • Kitty J. Jager
    Review Article
  • The demand for kidney transplants is far from met by human donors — a problem that may be solved by the clinical translation of porcine kidney xenotransplantation. A new paper describes the development of genetically ‘humanized’ pigs, the kidneys of which kept nephrectomized cynomolgus macaques alive for up to 2 years.

    • Eckhard Wolf
    • Bruno Reichart
    News & Views
  • The current nomenclature for cardiorenal syndrome is problematic owing to its chronological approach and the systemic nature of some of the subtypes. We suggest adoption of a new concept, chronic cardiovascular–kidney disorder, that better reflects the contributions of common risk factors and shared pathophysiological mechanisms.

    • Carmine Zoccali
    • Francesca Mallamaci
    • Faiez Zannad
  • In this Review, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis discusses how adaptive selection during evolution could have shaped sex differences in energy partitioning, adipose tissue function and distribution, and glucose homeostasis. He also discusses the hormonal and genetic mechanisms that underlie these sex differences and their implications for metabolic disease and sex-based precision medicine.

    • Franck Mauvais-Jarvis
    Review Article
  • Clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is associated with increased risk of disease, including cardiovascular and kidney disease. Here, the authors discuss the consequences of CHIP across various organ systems, including direct and indirect effects on kidney health.

    • Caitlyn Vlasschaert
    • Matthew B. Lanktree
    • Pradeep Natarajan
    Review Article
  • The compartmentalized structure of primary cilia is maintained via interconnected barrier and active transport systems and underlies its unique composition and function. This Review describes the major compartmentalizing pathways that occur at the cilium and how insights into cilia transport and barrier mechanisms have shed light on the mechanisms underlying ciliary diseases.

    • Ailis L. Moran
    • Laura Louzao-Martinez
    • Oliver E. Blacque
    Review Article
  • First Nations peoples in Australia face systemic inequities in access to kidney transplantation. The National Indigenous Kidney Transplant Taskforce was established to address these. It has provided support to clinicians to implement and evaluate innovative practices and developed strategies to address biases in the structures and models of care that create barriers to wait-listing.

    • Stephen P. McDonald
    • Katie Cundale
    • Jaquelyne T. Hughes
  • Although potentially harmful in excess, reactive oxygen species (ROS) also act as signalling molecules and contribute to cell survival. This Review describes the relevance of ROS to physiological processes and disease pathogenesis with a focus on the kidney. The authors also outline the current status of clinical trials that aim to target ROS signalling in humans.

    • Seiji Kishi
    • Hajime Nagasu
    • Naoki Kashihara
    Review Article
  • The family of melastatin-like transient receptor potential (TRPM) channels comprises eight multifunctional cation channels. Here, the authors examine the functional role of each TRPM channel, including insights from channelopathies, and discuss the implications for kidney homeostasis and pathology.

    • Vladimir Chubanov
    • Michael Köttgen
    • Thomas Gudermann
    Review Article