Volume 10 Issue 5, May 2009
From The Editors
Microtubule assembly, organization and dynamics in axons and dendrites
Microtubules are key determinants of neuronal polarity, which provides the basis of unidirectional signal transmission in the mature nervous system. This Review focuses on the regulation of microtubule assembly, organization and dynamics in developing axons and dendrites.
Apolipoprotein E and its receptors in Alzheimer's disease: pathways, pathogenesis and therapy
The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is a strong risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Bu discusses the contribution of the various APOE isoforms and APOE receptors to the pathophysiology of AD and emerging therapeutic opportunities.
Coding and use of tactile signals from the fingertips in object manipulation tasks
Everyday object manipulation tasks require the brain to interpret the signals from tactile afferents in the hands. Johansson and Flanagan describe our current understanding of this process, showing how tactile signals are used to control and refine manipulations.
Parallel processing strategies of the primate visual system
To integrate our visual environment into a unified and coherent perceptual experience, the brain uses multiple processing strategies. Here, Nassi and Callaway review how the primate primary visual cortex integrates parallel inputs and constructs new, parallel outputs to achieve this goal.
The probability of neurotransmitter release: variability and feedback control at single synapses
Two neurons can be connected by multiple synaptic contacts with different likelihoods of neurotransmitter release. Branco and staras discuss the role of feedback regulation from the postsynaptic site in determining this probability at individual synapses and consider the possible functional advantages of variable neurotransmitter release.
Phasic acetylcholine release and the volume transmission hypothesis: time to move on
Understanding the mode of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission, which is thought to mediate attentional tasks, is key to finding effective treatments for a range of cognitive disorders. Sarter and colleagues contrast evidence for volume and phasic transmission and conclude that the latter is more significant for attentional tasks.