Articles in 2019

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  • The perirhinal cortex forms part of the medial temporal lobe and has an established role in episodic memory formation. Yasushi Miyashita reviews the neural circuitry and the function of the perirhinal cortex and proposes that it acts as a hub linking episodic and semantic memory.

    • Yasushi Miyashita
    Review Article
  • Two studies demonstrate the power of combining induced pluripotent stem cell technology with CRISPR-mediated gene editing to investigate neurobiological mechanisms.

    • Katherine Whalley
    Research Highlight
  • Humans and other animals use spatial hearing to rapidly localize events in the environment. Here, van der Heijden and colleagues discuss the latest insights from neurophysiological, neuroimaging and computational modelling studies into the cortical encoding of sound location.

    • Kiki van der Heijden
    • Josef P. Rauschecker
    • Elia Formisano
    Review Article
  • The 15q11.2 copy number deletion, which is associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders, is found in rodents to result in reduced myelin thickness, lower functional connectivity and motor deficits.

    • Sian Lewis
    Research Highlight
  • In zebrafish, pioneer axons of the dorsal root ganglia require the release of synaptic-like vesicles to enter the spinal cord, suggesting that synaptic vesicles have a role in circuit formation ahead of synaptogenesis.

    • Katharine H. Wrighton
    Research Highlight
  • A new study reports that a nociceptin circuit limits motivation during reward-seeking behaviour in mice.

    • Grant Otto
    Research Highlight
  • A new study reports that Lewy pathology in brain tissue from individuals with Parkinson disease largely comprises membranes and organelles.

    • Darran Yates
    Research Highlight
  • Mental imagery plays a role in a variety of cognitive processes such as memory recall. In this review, Joel Pearson discusses recent insights into the neural mechanisms that underlie visual imagery, how imagery can be objectively and reliably measured, and how it affects general cognition.

    • Joel Pearson
    Review Article
  • The whisker sensorimotor system provides rodents with tactile information about their immediate facial environment. In this Review, Carl Petersen examines the complex neuronal circuits of the whisker-related primary somatosensory cortex and how they contribute to sensorimotor processing.

    • Carl C. H. Petersen
    Review Article
  • Several specialized macrophage populations reside in the structures that border the mammalian CNS, including the meninges, perivascular spaces and choroid plexus. Prinz and colleagues review the development and characteristics of these ‘CNS-associated macrophages’ and describe their proposed contributions to CNS function and disease.

    • Katrin Kierdorf
    • Takahiro Masuda
    • Marco Prinz
    Review Article
  • GABAergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus play a role in energy balance regulation via indirect projections to brown adipose tissue where they regulate thermogenesis.

    • Sian Lewis
    Research Highlight
  • In a mouse model of stroke, induction of TREM1 expression on peripheral myeloid cells magnifies inflammatory responses and neurological dysfunction.

    • Katherine Whalley
    Research Highlight
  • Optopharmacology enables endogenous ligands, receptors and ion channels to be rendered sensitive to light. Paoletti, Ellis-Davies and Mourot give an overview of current optopharmacological techniques and tools and describe the neuroscientific insights they have uncovered.

    • Pierre Paoletti
    • Graham C. R. Ellis-Davies
    • Alexandre Mourot
    Review Article
  • A new study finds that, in optogenetic approaches, light delivery itself may affect neural activity via tissue heating.

    • Isobel Leake
    Research Highlight
  • Specialized extracellular matrix structures known as perineuronal nets surround the soma and dendrites of many CNS neurons. Fawcett and colleagues provide an update on our current understanding of perineuronal net composition, formation and functional roles in brain function and disease.

    • James W. Fawcett
    • Toshitaka Oohashi
    • Tommaso Pizzorusso
    Review Article
  • A major challenge in neuroscience is the definition of neuronal types. Here, Paul and Huang give an overview of efforts to classify GABAergic cell types, and propose a framework in which cell types are transcriptionally defined communication elements with characteristic input–output properties.

    • Z. Josh Huang
    • Anirban Paul
    Perspective