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  • The number of neural stem cells in the brain decreases with age, which in the dentate gyrus of older mice is associated with a lower SIRT7-mediated mitochondrial unfolded protein response and reduced neural stem cell maintenance and neurogenesis.

    • Sian Lewis
    Research Highlight
  • Microglia are detected in active lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and research in animal models has suggested diverse roles for these cells in neural damage and repair. Gosselin and colleagues discuss the mechanisms through which microglia contribute to neuropathology and the molecular mechanisms that regulate their function in demyelinating conditions.

    • Félix Distéfano-Gagné
    • Sara Bitarafan
    • David Gosselin
    Review Article
  • Oligodendrocytes secrete extracellular vesicles, which deliver cargo to axons where they regulate key cellular processes. In this Review, Krämer-Albers and Werner discuss the mechanisms by which extracellular vesicles promote neuronal health and their potential to be utilized therapeutically.

    • Eva-Maria Krämer-Albers
    • Hauke B. Werner
    Review Article
  • A brain–computer interface can decode semantic representations of perceived and imagined stimuli at the level of words and phrases from functional MRI recordings of brain activity.

    • Jake Rogers
    Research Highlight
  • Artificial neural networks are being widely used to model behavioural and neural data. In this Perspective article, Doerig et al. present neuroconnectionism as a Lakatosian research programme using artificial neural networks as a computational language for expressing falsifiable theories and hypotheses about the brain computations underlying cognition.

    • Adrien Doerig
    • Rowan P. Sommers
    • Tim C. Kietzmann
  • The thalamus is a subcortical structure that is highly interconnected with various brain regions. In this Perspective, Kai Hwang and colleagues examine the role of the human thalamus in the systems-level control of information processing.

    • James M. Shine
    • Laura D. Lewis
    • Kai Hwang
  • In Drosophila melanogaster, a neuronal pathway is found that mediates the effect of dietary protein ingestion on arousability from sleep.

    • Sian Lewis
    Research Highlight
  • In many animals, injury can be followed by a pattern of persistent pain and recuperative behaviour that facilitates effective recovery. In this Perspective, Seymour, Crook and Chen outline a control theory framework to explain the adaptive processes that occur in the brain that underlie behaviour after injury.

    • Ben Seymour
    • Robyn J. Crook
    • Zhe Sage Chen
  • Neuronal activity in the secondary motor cortex of mice engaged in a foraging task simultaneously represents multiple alternative decision-making strategies.

    • Katherine Whalley
    Research Highlight
  • Oxytocin-releasing projections from the paraventricular nucleus enhance top-down nociceptive regulation in rats by altering the excitation–inhibition balance in the prefrontal cortex.

    • Jake Rogers
    Research Highlight
  • The pathogenesis of multiple system atrophy, a rapidly progressing oligodendroglial α-synucleinopathy, is not well understood. In this Review, Stefanova and Wenning discuss how converging findings from genetic and neuropathological studies and experimental models have revealed a complex cascade of mechanisms that underlie the disorder.

    • Nadia Stefanova
    • Gregor K. Wenning
    Review Article
  • Neural manifolds can shed light on how heterogeneous neuronal population activity drives neural computations, but linking these insights to the underlying neuronal connectivity is challenging. Engel and colleagues emphasize the importance of approaches that seek to connect neural dynamics with connectivity, providing key examples of advances towards this goal.

    • Christopher Langdon
    • Mikhail Genkin
    • Tatiana A. Engel
  • Recent technological advances allow recordings of human brain activity to be made as participants engage in free movement inside and outside the laboratory. Suthana and colleagues describe these innovations, their application to cognitive neuroscience studies and their potential to transform our understanding of brain function in naturalistic settings.

    • Matthias Stangl
    • Sabrina L. Maoz
    • Nanthia Suthana
  • In this Perspective, Floegel et al. examine two perspectives — musculoskeletal plant control and perceptual control — on modelling human motor control. They discuss the implications of adopting one or the other perspective when conducting such modelling and the consequences for our understanding of actions.

    • Mareike Floegel
    • Johannes Kasper
    • Christian A. Kell