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  • Primates can quickly detect situations in which their performance deviates from the intended goal by the process of error monitoring. In this Review, Rutishauser and colleagues discuss the neuronal mechanisms that underlie such monitoring in macaques and humans.

    • Zhongzheng Fu
    • Amirsaman Sajad
    • Ueli Rutishauser
    Review Article
  • In this Journal Club, Janelle Drouin-Ouellet describes the 1989 paper that provided the first evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in individuals with idiopathic Parkinson disease.

    • Janelle Drouin-Ouellet
    Journal Club
  • Spectrins are abundant cytoskeletal proteins with multifaceted roles in the nervous system whose dysfunction leads to neurological syndromes. In this review, Lorenzo et al. provide an update on the neurobiology of spectrins and the genetics of neuronal spectrinopathies, together with insights into the pathophysiology of these disorders.

    • Damaris N. Lorenzo
    • Reginald J. Edwards
    • Anastasia L. Slavutsky
    Review Article
  • Recent technological advances have provided insights into the diversity of neuronal subtypes within the midbrain dopamine system. In this Review, Garritsen and colleagues discuss molecular and functional distinctions between subtypes and describe mechanisms underlying their development, wiring and function.

    • Oxana Garritsen
    • Eljo Y. van Battum
    • R. Jeroen Pasterkamp
    Review Article
  • Ketamine-induced dissociated states in mice result from the suppression and activation of cortical pyramidal neuron populations that are active and silent during wakefulness, respectively.

    • Jake Rogers
    Research Highlight
  • A growing body of epidemiological evidence linking air pollution to multiple brain disorders suggests that these adverse effects are produced by mechanisms that are shared across these disorders. More stringent, targeted regulatory policies may therefore be required to ensure public health protection.

    • Deborah A. Cory-Slechta
    • Marissa Sobolewski
  • Cortical inhibitory interneurons undergo diverse forms of long-term synaptic plasticity. In this Review, Sjöström and colleagues describe the diversity of this interneuron plasticity and highlight that the plasticitome, a comprehensive database of plasticity rules, is needed to understand circuit plasticity complexity.

    • Amanda R. McFarlan
    • Christina Y. C. Chou
    • P. Jesper Sjöström
    Review Article
  • Hyperactivity in a subset of lateral septum neurons inhibits social reward processing and drives social avoidance following chronic social defeat in mice.

    • Katherine Whalley
    Research Highlight
  • Deletion of Gabrb3, which encodes the β3 subunit of the GABAA receptor selectively in pyramidal neurons of developing mouse sensory cortex, increased contralateral connectivity, network synchrony and sensitivity to tactile stimuli, suggesting that this receptor is involved in refinement of interhemispheric sensory pathways.

    • Sian Lewis
    Research Highlight
  • Neural oscillations are thought to have an important role in syntactic structure building but views differ on their exact function in this context. In this Perspective, Kazanina and Tavano explore two proposed functions for neural oscillations in this process, namely chunking and multiscale information integration.

    • Nina Kazanina
    • Alessandro Tavano
  • In this Perspective article, Foster and colleagues describe converging evidence supporting an anatomical and functional division of the posterior cingulate cortex into three subregions that contribute to different cognitive tasks.

    • Brett L. Foster
    • Seth R. Koslov
    • Sarah R. Heilbronner
  • The increased tissue stiffness that results from the presence of Aβ aggregates activates microglial mechanosensitive PIEZO1 channels and drives Aβ engulfment, reducing plaque burden, synapse loss and spatial memory impairment in mice.

    • Sian Lewis
    Research Highlight
  • Bogdan and colleagues consider how the findings of recent genome-wide association studies of substance use and addiction risk can be integrated with our current understanding of the neurobiological contributions to substance use disorders, and propose a new genetically informed model of addiction.

    • Ryan Bogdan
    • Alexander S. Hatoum
    • Arpana Agrawal
  • Schemas are structured bodies of prior knowledge that reflect common patterns of information from related experiences. In this Review, Farzanfar et al. discuss evidence for spatial schemas, how they form and how they differ from cognitive maps.

    • Delaram Farzanfar
    • Hugo J. Spiers
    • R. Shayna Rosenbaum
    Review Article
  • A gut–brain circuit that mediates retching and nausea in response to enterotoxins and chemotheraputic drugs is characterized in mice.

    • Katherine Whalley
    Research Highlight