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  • At early developmental stages, spontaneous activity in the mammalian cortex is characterized by the occurrence of highly synchronous network events. Portera-Cailliau and colleagues describe these activity patterns, their underlying mechanisms and function, and their transition to the desynchronized activity observed in adult individuals.

    • Michelle W. Wu
    • Nazim Kourdougli
    • Carlos Portera-Cailliau
    Review Article
  • A clinically viable speech neuroprosthesis could restore natural speech to individuals with vocal-tract paralysis. In this Review, Silva et al. discuss rapid progress in neural interfaces and computational algorithms for decoding speech from cortical activity and propose evaluation metrics to help standardize speech neuroprostheses.

    • Alexander B. Silva
    • Kaylo T. Littlejohn
    • Edward F. Chang
    Review Article
  • The location-specific firing of hippocampal place cells changes when an animal enters a new environment, a phenomenon known as ‘remapping’. In this Perspective, André A. Fenton challenges standard models of place cell remapping and proposes a key role for the ‘re-registration’ of internally organized place cell population dynamics in the encoding of distinct environments.

    • André A. Fenton
  • A subset of female mice that show anxiety-related traits seek out a starvation-like state when exposed to repeated stress

    • Katherine Whalley
    Research Highlight
  • The main direction of motor skill-specific information between rat primary motor cortex and dorsolateral striatum is shown to switch from cortex-predominant before learning to striatum-predominant after learning.

    • Sian Lewis
    Research Highlight
  • Many cognitive functions rely on the ability to link distinct but related memories, while retaining the capacity to recall the individual details of the linked memories. Inokuchi and colleagues describe evidence that memory linking involves engram overlap and discuss the mechanisms that regulate this process.

    • Ali Choucry
    • Masanori Nomoto
    • Kaoru Inokuchi
    Review Article
  • The developmental colonization of the brain by microglial progenitors and establishment of microglial cell identity set the stage for microglial function in the adult. Barry-Carroll and Gomez-Nicola describe the mechanisms that regulate the development of microglia, including their origins, infiltration and colonization of the brain, proliferation and fate determination.

    • Liam Barry-Carroll
    • Diego Gomez-Nicola
    Review Article
  • A large network of brain regions is involved in salient distractor processing.

    • Isobel Leake
    Research Highlight
  • Many brain areas support complex language processing behaviours. In this Review, Fedorenko et al. disentangle the ‘core’ language system as functionally distinct from the perceptual and motor brain areas and knowledge and reasoning systems it closely interacts with during language comprehension and production.

    • Evelina Fedorenko
    • Anna A. Ivanova
    • Tamar I. Regev
    Review Article
  • Parkinson disease (PD) has been linked to dysfunction in a number of key intracellular signalling pathways that contribute to disease pathology. Coukos and Krainc describe the physiological functions of a selection of PD-linked proteins and their convergent effects on mitochondrial, lysosomal and synaptic dysfunction in PD.

    • Robert Coukos
    • Dimitri Krainc
    Review Article
  • Pathological compulsive behaviour is a potential transdiagnostic symptom of several neuropsychiatric disorders. In this Review, Robbins et al. examine the psychological basis of compulsions and compulsivity and their underlying neural circuitry, focused on fronto-striatal systems implicated in goal-directed behaviour and habits.

    • Trevor W. Robbins
    • Paula Banca
    • David Belin
    Review Article
  • A new study captures nearly the full repertoire of primate natural behaviour and reveals that highly distributed cortical activity maintains multifaceted dynamic social relationships.

    • Jake Rogers
    Research Highlight
  • The synaptic protein SynGAP exerts its effects on synaptic plasticity via a structural role rather than its GTPase-activating protein activity.

    • Darran Yates
    Research Highlight
  • There is a pressing need for drugs that effectively control pharmaco-resistant seizures and prevent their generation. In this Review, Vezzani and co-workers discuss the interconnected roles of mTOR signalling and neuroinflammatory processes in epileptogenesis, and how targeting these pathways might prove useful therapeutically.

    • Teresa Ravizza
    • Mirte Scheper
    • Annamaria Vezzani
    Review Article
  • One of the long-term sequelae associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection is ‘brain fog’, which is shown in this study to be linked to systemic inflammation and leakiness of the blood–brain barrier.

    • Sian Lewis
    Research Highlight
  • Neurons in the mouse subiculum encode concave and convex geometrical environmental features.

    • Katherine Whalley
    Research Highlight