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  • Ongoing systemic and neurocognitive impairments that continue in a subset of individuals after infection with SARS-CoV-2 infection are found to be associated with reduced serotonin levels.

    • Sian Lewis
    Research Highlight
  • Neurobiological organizational principles suggest that a generative grammar exists in the brain. In this Perspective, Dragoi proposes how neural grammar enables specific experience-independent, internally generated patterns of activity acquired via spontaneous generative combination of pre-existing sequential motifs to support internally generated representations of experience in the hippocampus.

    • George Dragoi
    Perspective
  • In mice, localized mutant APP expression in the CA3 hippocampal region leads to progressive network dysfunction and hippocampus-dependent memory deficits.

    • Darran Yates
    Research Highlight
  • Human cortical neurons undergo a protracted period of postmitotic maturation compared with those of other species. Wallace and Pollen review the cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic mechanisms that govern neuronal postmitotic development and consider the factors that may contribute to species-specific maturation rates.

    • Jenelle L. Wallace
    • Alex A. Pollen
    Review Article
  • A new biotinylation-based approach identifies previously unknown cell surface proteins of the axonal initial segment (AIS) and shows a role for contactin-1 in assembly of the AIS extracellular matrix.

    • Lisa Heinke
    Research Highlight
  • The organization and diversity of neuronal and glial primary cilia and their connectivity in the human cortex is characterized in detail.

    • Katherine Whalley
    Research Highlight
  • Fluorescent indicators can provide quantitative insights into the spatiotemporal dynamics of signalling molecules released by brain circuits. However, a mismatch between the experimental context and the experimental imaging settings often introduces unexpected errors and biases in such measurements. Appreciating this mismatch should help to arrive at unbiased estimates.

    • Dmitri A. Rusakov
    Comment
  • The macaque homologue of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex tracks the reliability of social information and determines whether this information is used to guide choices during decision making.

    • Jake Rogers
    Research Highlight
  • Ketamine is ‘trapped’ in the pores of NMDA receptors in the lateral habenula, mediating sustained antidepressant effects in mice.

    • Katherine Whalley
    Research Highlight
  • Grid cells develop in rats soon after they leave the nest. Here, Ulsaker-Janke et al. show that preventing exposure to straight boundaries from birth delays, but does not prevent, grid cell maturation in adult rats.

    • Caroline Barranco
    Research Highlight
  • A new study shows that, in a numerical judgement task, individuals show differences in neuronal coding of numbers below and above approximately four in the medial temporal lobe.

    • Darran Yates
    Research Highlight
  • Architectures in neural networks commonly assume that inference is hierarchical. In this Perspective, Suzuki et al. present the shallow brain hypothesis, a neural processing mechanism based on neuroanatomical and electrophysiological evidence that intertwines hierarchical cortical processing with a massively parallel process to which subcortical areas substantially contribute.

    • Mototaka Suzuki
    • Cyriel M. A. Pennartz
    • Jaan Aru
    Perspective
  • The neuropeptide oxytocin has a vital role in many mammalian social behaviours. Here, Menon and Neumann provide a comprehensive review of the rodent neuronal circuits in which oxytocin acts to regulate the processing of social cues in order to reinforce reproductive and non-reproductive social behaviours.

    • Rohit Menon
    • Inga D. Neumann
    Review Article
  • Data sharing is an essential component of open science practice. The Brain Imaging Data Structure project has pioneered a way to organize neuroimaging and behavioural data that enables easy sharing and reuse. We present experiences from the BIDS project and highlight how standards can promote open science.

    • Melanie Ganz
    • Russell A. Poldrack
    Comment
  • Neuron–oligodendroglial interactions modulate neural circuit structure and function in the healthy brain. In this Review, Taylor and Monje describe the accumulating evidence for how glial malignancies subvert and repurpose these powerful neuron–glial interactions to drive glioma pathophysiology.

    • Kathryn R. Taylor
    • Michelle Monje
    Review Article
  • Following synaptic vesicle exocytosis, synaptotagmin 1 recruits a lipid signalling pathway within the presynaptic plasma membrane that drives local dynamin recruitment and membrane retrieval by endocytosis, thus maintaining membrane homeostasis.

    • Sian Lewis
    Research Highlight
  • High-resolution maps of biological annotations in the brain are increasingly generated and shared. In this Review, Bazinet and colleagues discuss how brain connectomes can be enriched with biological annotations to address new questions about brain network organization.

    • Vincent Bazinet
    • Justine Y. Hansen
    • Bratislav Misic
    Review Article
  • The prospects for applying dynamical systems theory in neuroscience are changing dramatically. In this Perspective, Durstewitz et al. discuss dynamical system reconstruction using recurrent neural networks to directly infer a formal surrogate from an experimentally probed system and consider its potential for revolutionizing neuroscience.

    • Daniel Durstewitz
    • Georgia Koppe
    • Max Ingo Thurm
    Perspective