Reviews & Analysis

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  • This PrimeView highlights the use of scanning probe microscopy across a range of applications, from chemistry and materials science to studying living systems.

  • Bian et al. discuss the utility of different variants of scanning probe microscopy, with a focus on scanning tunnelling microscopy and atomic force microscopy. They summarize how the tools are used in the life and physical sciences.

    • Ke Bian
    • Christoph Gerber
    • Ying Jiang
  • This PrimeView highlights how electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to detect and understand the evolution of dynamic species with unpaired electrons during various catalytic cycles, focusing on current and future experimental setups for active catalyst detection and the diverse applications this in situ technique enables.

  • This Primer on in situ electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy describes various experimental set-ups to acquire spectral information on the paramagnetic state of chemical species with unpaired electrons present during catalytic reactions, with the goal of unravelling catalytic mechanisms and optimizing catalyst activity.

    • Shannon A. Bonke
    • Thomas Risse
    • Angelika Brückner
  • This PrimeView highlights the different techniques used for acquiring information on the spatial organization of proteins within the cell.

  • This Primer discusses methods for characterizing the subcellular location and organization of cellular proteins. The authors outline methods for generating spatially resolved proteomics data and describe tools and considerations for data analysis, before discussing the applications of these methods for investigating protein trafficking, identifying multi-localized proteins and localizing proteins at sub-organelle resolution.

    • Josie A. Christopher
    • Charlotte Stadler
    • Kathryn S. Lilley
  • This PrimeView describes the broad set of chemistries available within the bioorthogonal chemistry toolbox and how these have been used across a broad set of applications.

  • The underlying mechanisms and optimal conditions that drive biorthogonal reactions and the utility of these for applications in medicinal chemistry and protein synthesis to polymers and materials science are described in this Primer. Current reproducibility standards and how current reaction limitations are driving new research efforts are also discussed.

    • Samuel L. Scinto
    • Didier A. Bilodeau
    • Joseph M. Fox
  • This PrimeView highlights various parallelization techniques to concurrently acquire different NMR signals, and focuses on how increases in data acquisition speeds and sensitivity lead to quicker elucidation of molecular structures.

  • This Primer on parallel nuclear magnetic resonance describes various parallelization techniques ranging from hardware design to pulse sequence development that allow concurrent acquisition of different signals and lead to an increase in both data acquisition speeds and sensitivity when elucidating molecular structures.

    • Ēriks Kupče
    • Lucio Frydman
    • Tim D. W. Claridge
  • This PrimeView highlights the different setups for optical tweezers and their applications, with a focus on the various force measurements they enable on single molecules such as DNA and molecular motors.

  • This Primer on optical tweezers describes the instrumentation and experimental designs used in most single-molecule optical tweezers assays and discusses optical tweezers measurements in systems of biophysical interest such as DNA elasticity, protein and RNA folding, and molecular motors.

    • Carlos J. Bustamante
    • Yann R. Chemla
    • Michelle D. Wang
  • This PrimeView highlights the most relevant aspects of information theory that facilitate automation and prediction for chemical synthesis. This summary provides an overview of the software, hardware and data and how these are used to enable retrosynthetic logic, reaction prediction and automation.

  • This Primer summarizes the most relevant aspects of chemical synthesis in this information age for those looking to understand the software, hardware and data and how these are used to enable retrosynthetic logic, reaction prediction and automation.

    • Yuning Shen
    • Julia E. Borowski
    • Tim Cernak
  • This PrimeView describes the SORS instrument, discusses data analysis methods and highlights some of the many applications of SORS.

  • This Primer discusses the basic concepts, experimental considerations and diverse applications of spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS). The authors describe available SORS modalities and their advantages and disadvantages, outline strategies for analysing SORS data and discuss future directions and applications for this novel spectroscopic technique.

    • Sara Mosca
    • Claudia Conti
    • Pavel Matousek
  • This PrimeView highlights the main considerations for the use of CLIP methods and shows the key experimental steps common to most CLIP techniques.

  • Ule and colleagues discuss cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) methods for characterizing the RNA binding partners of RNA-binding proteins and explore the data analysis workflows, best practices and applications for these techniques. The Primer also considers methods for characterizing the protein binding partners of specific RNAs and discusses how data from these complementary methods can be integrated into CLIP workflows.

    • Markus Hafner
    • Maria Katsantoni
    • Mihaela Zavolan
  • This PrimeView highlights the cross-disciplinary nature of X-ray computed tomography, with a focus on important experimental aspects such as 3D data acquisition and 3D data reconstruction.

  • This Primer on X-ray computed tomography explores the different experimental configurations for three-dimensional data acquisition as well as the fundamentals of three-dimensional data reconstruction, segmentation and analysis with examples across the physical and life sciences.

    • Philip J. Withers
    • Charles Bouman
    • Stuart R. Stock