Primers and PrimeViews

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  • This PrimeView highlights how to analyse top-down proteomics data.

  • Proteoforms can be investigated using top-down proteomics, a technique that analyses whole proteins without previous digestion. This Primer introduces top-down proteomics, exploring mass spectrometry experimental methods, sample preparation, data analysis and applications in understanding human disease.

    • David S. Roberts
    • Joseph A. Loo
    • Ying Ge
  • This PrimeView highlights the different methods for the surface engineering of nanozymes.

  • Nanozymes are nanomaterial-based artificial enzymes that can emulate the catalytic functions inherent in enzymes. In this Primer, Zhang et al. discuss the nanozyme toolbox, including their design and modification, characterization, activity evaluation and applications in healthcare.

    • Yihong Zhang
    • Gen Wei
    • Hui Wei
  • This PrimeView highlights the analysis of the FSRS response, produced using three laser pulses that, in combination, can detail insights into rapid molecular processes at a femtosecond time resolution.

  • Femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (FSRS) is an ultrafast pump–probe spectroscopy method for investigating the vibrational dynamics of molecules. In this Primer, Batignani et al. introduce the fundamental concepts behind FSRS, its current utility and future integrations of artificial intelligence and quantum light.

    • Giovanni Batignani
    • Carino Ferrante
    • Tullio Scopigno
  • This PrimeView highlights how different primary ion beams can be used to sample different surface species.

  • Solid samples can be imaged and chemically analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometry. This Primer describes the secondary ion mass spectrometry experimental setup, in which a primary ion beam sputters secondary ions that are analysed and detected by a mass spectrometer, and explores applications in materials, geological and life sciences.

    • Nicholas P. Lockyer
    • Satoka Aoyagi
    • Lu-Tao Weng
  • Photoaffinity labelling (PAL) enables the direct mapping of interactions of small molecules with proteins. In this Primer, Homan et al. discuss the basic principles and considerations involved in the design and implementation of PAL reagents and methods.

    • Rick A. Homan
    • John D. Lapek
    • Christopher G. Parker
  • This PrimeView highlights the structures formed with different freeze casting moulds.

  • Freeze casting involves directional solidification of solutions or slurries followed by removal of the solid solvent phase. This Primer introduces the freeze casting technique, including experimental and analysis methods, with a particular focus on using X-ray tomoscopy for real-time, 3D observations of freeze casting dynamics.

    • Ulrike G. K. Wegst
    • Paul H. Kamm
    • Francisco García-Moreno
  • This PrimeView highlights the use of quantitative text analysis in various analytical tasks, from categorizing information to analyzing sentiment and making predictions.

  • Quantitative text analysis is a range of computational methods to analyse text data statistically and mathematically. In this Primer, Kristoffer Nielbo et al. introduce the methods, principles and applications of the quantitative text analysis across disciplines.

    • Kristoffer L. Nielbo
    • Folgert Karsdorp
    • Nina Tahmasebi
  • This PrimeView highlights how to overcome challenges when performing fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window.

  • Deep tissues can be imaged with high resolution and greater contrast by performing fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) window. This Primer summarizes how NIR-II fluorescence imaging can be used in animal models, exploring commonly used fluorophores and implementation approaches across a range of scientific and clinical applications.

    • Elizabeth Lea Schmidt
    • Zihao Ou
    • Guosong Hong
  • Analysing single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) enables an unprecedented view of the dynamics and kinetics of biomolecular conformational changes and interactions. In this Primer, Ha et al. discuss technological advances that have led to smFRET and how the method can be adapted to address various research questions in structural and molecular biology.

    • Taekjip Ha
    • Jingyi Fei
    • Sanghun Yeou
  • This PrimeView highlights the range of applications of biocarbon materials including composite materials, energy storage and conversion, and environmental remediation.

  • Biocarbons are carbonaceous solids derived from renewable and sustainable feedstocks through thermochemical conversion at high temperatures. In this Primer, Mohanty et al. discuss feedstock selection, pyrolysis techniques and post-modification strategies, as well as waste reduction and the economic impact of biocarbons.

    • Amar K. Mohanty
    • Singaravelu Vivekanandhan
    • Manjusri Misra