Primers and PrimeViews

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  • This PrimeView highlights the use of quantitative text analysis in various analytical tasks, from categorizing information to analyzing sentiment and making predictions.

  • Quantitative text analysis is a range of computational methods to analyse text data statistically and mathematically. In this Primer, Kristoffer Nielbo et al. introduce the methods, principles and applications of the quantitative text analysis across disciplines.

    • Kristoffer L. Nielbo
    • Folgert Karsdorp
    • Nina Tahmasebi
  • This PrimeView highlights how to overcome challenges when performing fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window.

  • Deep tissues can be imaged with high resolution and greater contrast by performing fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) window. This Primer summarizes how NIR-II fluorescence imaging can be used in animal models, exploring commonly used fluorophores and implementation approaches across a range of scientific and clinical applications.

    • Elizabeth Lea Schmidt
    • Zihao Ou
    • Guosong Hong
  • Analysing single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) enables an unprecedented view of the dynamics and kinetics of biomolecular conformational changes and interactions. In this Primer, Ha et al. discuss technological advances that have led to smFRET and how the method can be adapted to address various research questions in structural and molecular biology.

    • Taekjip Ha
    • Jingyi Fei
    • Sanghun Yeou
  • This PrimeView highlights the range of applications of biocarbon materials including composite materials, energy storage and conversion, and environmental remediation.

  • Biocarbons are carbonaceous solids derived from renewable and sustainable feedstocks through thermochemical conversion at high temperatures. In this Primer, Mohanty et al. discuss feedstock selection, pyrolysis techniques and post-modification strategies, as well as waste reduction and the economic impact of biocarbons.

    • Amar K. Mohanty
    • Singaravelu Vivekanandhan
    • Manjusri Misra
  • This PrimeView highlights future applications of graph neural networks.

  • Graph neural networks are a class of deep learning methods that can model physical systems, generate new molecules and identify drug candidates. This Primer introduces graph neural networks and explores how they are applied across the life and physical sciences.

    • Gabriele Corso
    • Hannes Stark
    • Regina Barzilay
  • Structures of surfaces and thin films can be investigated by performing X-ray diffraction under grazing incidence conditions. This Primer explores how grazing incidence X-ray diffraction is used to obtain crystallographic information, including in situ characterization, data collection, analysis and visualization, across a range of applications.

    • Oliver Werzer
    • Stefan Kowarik
    • Roland Resel
  • This PrimeView highlights how artificial molecular pumps can be designed to harness an external energy source to accomplish a desired synthetic task.

  • Artificial molecular pumps are synthetic machines capable of performing complex tasks on a molecular scale. In this Primer, Zhang et al. discuss the design features and underlying fundamental physical principles of artificial molecular pumps.

    • Long Zhang
    • Huang Wu
    • J. Fraser Stoddart
  • Fresh water can be produced from saline water using pressure-driven membrane desalination. This Primer explores how reverse osmosis and nanofiltration are used as energy-efficient desalination methods, with a focus on membrane development, characterization and performance modelling.

    • Weifan Liu
    • Joshua L. Livingston
    • Shihong Lin
  • This PrimeView highlights how multivariate analysis can be used to analyse the entire spectral domain in Brillouin microscopy.

  • Brillouin microscopy is a non-contact method used for mechanical probing of cells and tissues. In this Primer, Kabakova et al. provide a comprehensive overview of the methods and applications of Brillouin microscopy.

    • Irina Kabakova
    • Jitao Zhang
    • Giuliano Scarcelli
  • This PrimeView highlights how the diversity, composition and clonal architecture of the adaptive immune receptor repertoire can be used in identifying disease states and response to treatment.

  • The adaptive immune receptor repertoire (AIRR) drives adaptive immune responses, which could determine disease outcomes, infectious disease and cancer. Mhanna, Bashour et al. outline the approaches and challenges in AIRR analysis, as well as future developments towards predicting adaptive immune responses.

    • Vanessa Mhanna
    • Habib Bashour
    • Encarnita Mariotti-Ferrandiz