Atomic tip with attached nanoparticles

Tip-enhanced Raman scattering

TERS is used to assess the molecular composition and structure of surfaces to a nanometer scale.


  • image of two scientists working

    Topics soon to be featured include: Fourier transforms, Holotomography, Spatial multiplexing and omics and Optimal transport for single-cell and spatial omics.

  • NRMP logo

    Never miss a Primer! The editors will be posting our newest content along with information about conferences and new developments in methods research.


  • The Fourier transform is a mathematical tool for analysing signals that vary in space or time via a transform into the frequency domain. This Primer explores how the Fourier transform is used in analytical science, particularly for spectroscopic data, with an overview of theoretical and experimental considerations.

    • Marc-André Delsuc
    • Peter O’Connor
  • Tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) can be used to access the molecular composition and structure of surfaces with extreme lateral and depth resolution, down to the nanometre scale and beyond. In this Primer, Höppener et al. discuss the underlying physical principles driving the signal enhancement and lateral resolution of TERS.

    • Christiane Höppener
    • Javier Aizpurua
    • Volker Deckert
  • Element-specific electronic properties can be probed using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). A combination of X-ray absorption and emission, RIXS can investigate collective excitations in energy and momentum space. This Primer explores both valence and core RIXS, including background theory, experimental set-up, data analysis and example applications.

    • Frank M. F. de Groot
    • Maurits W. Haverkort
    • Pieter Glatzel
  • Origami engineering offers a conceptual framework for non-destructive and scale-independent abstractions for engineering applications. In this Primer, Misseroni et al. provide a comprehensive overview of the major principles and elements in origami engineering, including theoretical fundamentals, simulation tools, manufacturing techniques and testing protocols.

    • Diego Misseroni
    • Phanisri P. Pratapa
    • Glaucio H. Paulino
  • Proteoforms can be investigated using top-down proteomics, a technique that analyses whole proteins without previous digestion. This Primer introduces top-down proteomics, exploring mass spectrometry experimental methods, sample preparation, data analysis and applications in understanding human disease.

    • David S. Roberts
    • Joseph A. Loo
    • Ying Ge
  • Single-case experimental designs are rapidly growing in popularity. This popularity needs to be accompanied by transparent and well-justified methodological and statistical decisions. Appropriate experimental design including randomization, proper data handling and adequate reporting are needed to ensure reproducibility and internal validity. The degree of generalizability can be assessed through replication.

    • René Tanious
    • Rumen Manolov
    • Johan W. S. Vlaeyen
  • Bayesian optimization is a promising approach towards a more environmentally friendly chemical synthesis, in line with the Sustainable Development Goals. It can aid chemists to explore vast chemical spaces and find green reaction conditions with few experiments, decreasing resource consumption and waste generation while reducing discovery timelines and costs.

    • Elena Braconi
  • To improve early-stage research in the field of RNA lipid nanoparticles, there are several best practices to be considered for the collection, interpretation and reporting of characterization data.

    • Omar F. Khan
  • To ensure a sustainable future and combat food scarcity, we must boost agricultural productivity, improve climate resilience and optimize resource usage. There is untapped potential for dense wireless sensor networks in agriculture that can increase yields and support resilient production when linked to smart decision and control systems.

    • Peter G. Steeneken
    • Elias Kaiser
    • Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis
  • New nanomaterials are being developed for efficient biomolecule delivery to plants. However, detection and quantification of plant cell entry are challenging and currently rely on subjective methods that lack proper controls. The necessary considerations of performing nanoparticle-mediated delivery in plants and how to accurately quantify delivery efficiency are discussed.

    • Gozde S. Demirer