Extended reality for biomedicine

Extended reality for biomedicine

Immersing users in a virtual enviroment provides new opportunites for biomedical research and health care.


  • image of two scientists working

    Topics soon to be featured include: Peptidomics, Integrated catalysis, Nanomaterial-based contrast agents and Droplet-based microfluidics.

  • NRMP logo

    Never miss a Primer! The editors will be posting our newest content along with information about conferences and new developments in methods research.


  • Analytes can be ionized and brought into the gas phase using electrospray ionization (ESI). Coupling ESI with mass spectrometry enables a wide range of molecules to be studied, including proteins and polymers. This Primer introduces the ESI method, describing the underlying mechanism, common variants and instrument setups.

    • Gurpur Rakesh D. Prabhu
    • Evan R. Williams
    • Pawel L. Urban
  • Mutations in mitochondrial DNA can cause several life-limiting diseases, raising interest in mitochondrial gene editing via nucleases and base editors. In this Primer, Shoop et al. discuss mitochondrial gene editing tools, analyses and limitations in the field.

    • Wendy K. Shoop
    • Sandra R. Bacman
    • Carlos T. Moraes
  • Isothermal titration calorimetry uses the heat of a reaction to study molecular interactions in solution. This Primer introduces the method, from fundamental principles and experimental set-up, to applications involving complex biological interactions.

    • Margarida Bastos
    • Olga Abian
    • Adrian Velazquez-Campoy
  • Extended reality allows users to be immersed in a virtual environment, with implications for biomedical research and applications. Yuan, Hassan et al. discuss the adoption of extended reality in biomedical research, with a focus on technical advances that overcome current limitations.

    • Jie Yuan
    • Sohail S. Hassan
    • Yichen Ding
  • Plasmon-mediated chemical reactions use nanostructure-based surface plasmons as mediators to drive chemical reactions. Zhan et al. outline the primary considerations and techniques for designing and constructing plasmonic catalysts and describe the typical methods used to characterize plasmonic catalysts and their reaction mechanisms.

    • Chao Zhan
    • Jun Yi
    • Zhong-Qun Tian
  • Behavioural genetics examines the underlying factors associated with individual differences in behaviours and capacities. In this Primer, Willoughby et al. discuss the methods used in behavioural genetics analysis, in particular twin studies, genome-wide association studies and statistical modelling.

    • Emily A. Willoughby
    • Tinca J. C. Polderman
    • Brian B. Boutwell