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Volume 19 Issue 4, April 2021

Volume 19 Issue 4

'Sounding the alarm', inspired by the review article on page 256.

Cover design: Philip Patenall

Research Highlights

  • In Brief |

    This study reports that childhood antibiotic exposure alters the gut microbiota, resulting in reduced growth in boys and increased body mass index in boys and girls, from exposure in infancy and early childhood, respectively.

    • Grant Otto
  • In Brief |

    This study reveals that Toxoplasma gondii maintains a replicative niche in neutrophils by extending their longevity through inhibition of apoptosis. This effect occurs by upregulation of PCNA expression, resulting in inhibition of caspase cleavage and activation.

    • Grant Otto
  • In Brief |

    This study shows that gut fungi, in particular Candida albicans, induce the production of systemic antifungal antibodies, which can provide protection against systemic fungal infections.

    • Grant Otto
  • Research Highlight |

    This study shows that Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium virulence and survival are modulated by changes in host cell metabolism during infection.

    • Andrea Du Toit
  • Research Highlight |

    Two recent papers report the first-in-human clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of faecal microbiota transplantation for metastatic melanoma that is refractory to cancer immunotherapy.

    • Ashley York
  • In Brief |

    This study provides ultrastructural evidence that the HIV-1 capsid can enter the nucleus of an infected T cell line through the nuclear pore complex and fragments in the nucleoplasm to release the viral genome.

    • Grant Otto
  • In Brief |

    This study shows that one mechanism of immune evasion used by Staphylococcus aureus involves a virulence factor, SpA, which can block complement activation by inhibiting IgG oligomerization.

    • Grant Otto
  • In Brief |

    This study provides evidence that membrane lipids are important in regulating the dynamics of the bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscS in response to changes in membrane tension.

    • Grant Otto

News & Analysis

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Culturing microorganisms is a priority to complement the flood of genomic data illuminating archaeal and bacterial diversity. In this Review, Ettema and colleagues highlight recent successes in culturing elusive lineages, innovative methods and key targets for future cultivation.

    • William H. Lewis
    • Guillaume Tahon
    • Thijs J. G. Ettema
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Morais, Schreiber and Mazmanian discuss emerging and exciting evidence of intricate and potentially important connections between the gut microbiota and the brain involving multiple biological systems, and possible contributions by the gut microbiota to complex behaviours.

    • Livia H. Morais
    • Henry L. Schreiber IV
    • Sarkis K. Mazmanian

    Series:

  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Corrigan and colleagues explore the broad range of metabolic pathways that guanosine pentaphosphate, guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine 5′-monophosphate 3′-diphosphate regulate in the bacterial cell and emphasize the importance of these alarmones in regulating diverse metabolic processes. Moreover, they examine the contribution of these alarmones to virulence and chronic infection.

    • Sophie E. Irving
    • Naznin R. Choudhury
    • Rebecca M. Corrigan
  • Review Article |

    The textbook view of the viral life cycle depicts uniform, discrete steps. However, growing evidence shows considerable phenotypic and morphological heterogeneity during viral infection. In this Review, Lakdawala and colleagues highlight host and viral heterogeneity and its causes and consequences.

    • Jennifer E. Jones
    • Valerie Le Sage
    • Seema S. Lakdawala

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