Latest Research

  • Review Article |

    Toxoplasmosis caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a common opportunistic infection with high mortality in individuals who are immunocompromised, most commonly due to reactivation of infection in the central nervous system (CNS). In this Review, Sibley and colleagues explore the interaction between host immune defences and parasite virulence factors with emphasis on bradyzoite differentiation and survival of T. gondii within the CNS.

    • Sumit K. Matta
    • , Nicholas Rinkenberger
    •  & L. David Sibley
  • Review Article |

    Cryptococcosis is a serious fungal infection for which treatment options are limited. In this Review, Cowen and colleagues discuss the current antifungal treatments available for cryptococcal infections, the challenges in developing new treatments, and ongoing efforts to identify novel therapies.

    • Kali R. Iyer
    • , Nicole M. Revie
    •  & Leah E. Cowen
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Rappuoli and colleagues discuss evidence that vaccines can have a major role in fighting antimicrobial resistance, they describe the current state of development of vaccines against antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens and discuss possible opportunities to overcome obstacles that hinder progress in vaccine development.

    • Francesca Micoli
    • , Fabio Bagnoli
    •  & Davide Serruto
  • Review Article |

    Microorganisms produce and excrete an array of metabolites with different physico-chemical properties and biological activities. In this Review, Garbeva and colleagues highlight recent discoveries concerning microbial volatile compounds and their roles in intra-kingdom and inter-kingdom communication, and discuss the potential biotechnological applications of microbial volatiles, as well as challenges and perspectives in this emerging research field.

    • Laure Weisskopf
    • , Stefan Schulz
    •  & Paolina Garbeva
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Kappler and colleagues highlight recent advances in our understanding of the biogeochemical iron cycle, exploring the great complexity of the processes involved and novel mechanistic insights that have been gained.

    • Andreas Kappler
    • , Casey Bryce
    •  & Elizabeth D. Swanner
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Fodor and colleagues discuss recent structural insights into the RNA polymerases of negative-sense RNA viruses and their use to identify novel targets for the development of antiviral agents.

    • Aartjan J. W. te Velthuis
    • , Jonathan M. Grimes
    •  & Ervin Fodor
  • Review Article |

    Recent studies have revealed that the evolutionary impact of plasmids goes above and beyond their being mere gene delivery platforms. In this Review, Rodríguez-Beltrán, San Millán and colleagues discuss the advances that underscore the importance of plasmids in bacterial ecology and evolution beyond horizontal gene transfer.

    • Jerónimo Rodríguez-Beltrán
    • , Javier DelaFuente
    •  & Álvaro San Millán
  • Review Article |

    The fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in bats, has devastated bat populations in North America since its introduction from Eurasia in the 2000s. In this Review, Hoyt and colleagues describe the ecology of P. destructans in bats and its impacts on bats and the ecosystem.

    • Joseph R. Hoyt
    • , A. Marm Kilpatrick
    •  & Kate E. Langwig
  • Review Article |

    Bacteria have much more diverse and versatile respiratory chains than eukaryotes, enabling adaption to different environmental conditions. In this Review, Kaila and Wikström discuss the architecture, function and bioenergetics of modular bacterial respiratory chains and supercomplexes.

    • Ville R. I. Kaila
    •  & Mårten Wikström
  • Review Article |

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows high diversity and plasticity, which enables it to succeed in the challenging environment of cystic fibrosis airways. In this Review, Johansen and colleagues highlight genomic and phenotypic adaptation of P. aeruginosa and the implications for infection management.

    • Elio Rossi
    • , Ruggero La Rosa
    •  & Helle Krogh Johansen
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Corrigan and colleagues explore the broad range of metabolic pathways that guanosine pentaphosphate, guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine 5′-monophosphate 3′-diphosphate regulate in the bacterial cell and emphasize the importance of these alarmones in regulating diverse metabolic processes. Moreover, they examine the contribution of these alarmones to virulence and chronic infection.

    • Sophie E. Irving
    • , Naznin R. Choudhury
    •  & Rebecca M. Corrigan
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Chen, Boyaci and Campbell examine universal pathways and diverse regulatory mechanisms in transcription initiation in evolutionarily divergent bacteria, and they discuss the mechanisms whereby antimicrobials inhibit transcription initiation and the insights those mechanisms provide into the transcription cycle.

    • James Chen
    • , Hande Boyaci
    •  & Elizabeth A. Campbell
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Thiel and colleagues discuss the key aspects of coronavirus biology and their implications for SARS-CoV-2 infections as well as for treatment and prevention strategies.

    • Philip V’kovski
    • , Annika Kratzel
    •  & Volker Thiel
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Morais, Schreiber and Mazmanian discuss emerging and exciting evidence of intricate and potentially important connections between the gut microbiota and the brain involving multiple biological systems, and possible contributions by the gut microbiota to complex behaviours.

    • Livia H. Morais
    • , Henry L. Schreiber IV
    •  & Sarkis K. Mazmanian