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  • CRISPR–Cas systems provide resistance against foreign mobile genetic elements and have a wide range of genome editing and biotechnological applications. In this Review, Wang, Pausch and Doudna examine recent advances in understanding the molecular structures and mechanisms of enzymes comprising bacterial RNA-guided CRISPR–Cas immune systems and deployed for wide-ranging genome editing applications.

    • Joy Y. Wang
    • Patrick Pausch
    • Jennifer A. Doudna
    Review Article
  • This Genome Watch highlights how metagenomics can fill the knowledge gap of the wild avian gut microbiome and enable the early detection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria with implications for public health policy and conservation management.

    • Physilia Ying Shi Chua
    • Jacob Agerbo Rasmussen
    Genome Watch
  • A recent study shows that chemotaxis shapes the microscale organization of the ocean’s microbiome.

    • Ashley York
    Research Highlight
  • The anti-tuberculosis drug candidate pipeline is promising, but the recent breakthroughs are challenged with the need to prioritize drug combinations for clinical trials and revamping trial designs to accelerate regimen development. In this Review, Dartois and Rubin explore treatment challenges, drug development priorities, and approaches — from basic research to preclinical evaluation — that lead to the selection of drug combinations earlier in the discovery cascade to accelerate the approval of shorter treatment regimens.

    • Véronique A. Dartois
    • Eric J. Rubin
    Review Article
  • A study in germ-free mice shows that the gut microbiota can influence dietary choices of the host.

    • Ursula Hofer
    In Brief
  • An in vitro study shows that the nuclear lamina regulates Epstein–Barr virus latency and viral gene expression.

    • Ursula Hofer
    In Brief
  • A recent study shows how tumour-resident intracellular bacteria enhance survival and the metastatic capacities of circulating tumour cells by protecting them from mechanical stress.

    • Adrian Gonzalez Lopez
    Research Highlight
  • In this Review, Greening and Grinter describe the microorganisms and enzymes that use atmospheric trace gases, including hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane, during growth and survival. They highlight important ecological and biogeochemical roles for these processes in diverse environments, including ecosystem resilience under changing conditions.

    • Chris Greening
    • Rhys Grinter
    Review Article
  • This study reports the discovery of two new DNA defence modules, termed DdmABC and DdmDE, in Vibrio cholerae.

    • Andrea Du Toit
    In Brief
  • This study suggests that fungicide treatment of stored fruit could contribute to the selection of resistant Candida auris.

    • Andrea Du Toit
    In Brief
  • This study uncovers how Yersinia pestis is protected from engulfment by macrophages by the capsule-like antigen F1.

    • Andrea Du Toit
    In Brief
  • This study shows that although colistin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae is associated with a fitness defect in gut colonization, it increases bacterial survival outside the host, thus enabling efficient host-to-host transmission.

    • Andrea Du Toit
    Research Highlight
  • In this Review, Aldridge and colleagues describe different types of mycobacterial heterogeneity and discuss how cell-to-cell heterogeneity and environmental heterogeneity are generated and regulated in response to environmental cues.

    • Eun Seon Chung
    • William C. Johnson
    • Bree B. Aldridge
    Review Article
  • This month’s Under the Lens discusses new strategies to image the spatial geography of microbial communities.

    • Mathew Stracy
    Under the Lens
  • In this Review, Lamers and Haagmans explore recent clinical and experimental advances in understanding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis, interactions with host cells and the involvement of the immune system in the development of severe disease. Specifically, they focus on mechanisms underlying the development of COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    • Mart M. Lamers
    • Bart L. Haagmans
    Review Article
  • This month’s Genome Watch highlights how genome and transcriptome sequencing of newly identified endosymbionts helps to connect genetic information to their protective functions.

    • Juan C. Villada
    • Frederik Schulz
    Genome Watch
  • The impacts of fungal infections on human health are of increasing concern, and resistance of pathogenic fungi to all licensed systemic antifungals has been documented. In this Review, Fisher, Verweij and colleagues discuss the research and innovation topics that are needed to understand and minimize the occurrence and impact of antifungal resistance.

    • Matthew C. Fisher
    • Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo
    • Paul E. Verweij
    Review Article
  • The human gut microbiota produces an extensive array of carbohydrate-active enzymes to degrade carbohydrates derived from the diet, host and other microorganisms. Withers and colleagues discuss the vast diversity and activities of these enzymes and their potential applications.

    • Jacob F. Wardman
    • Rajneesh K. Bains
    • Stephen G. Withers
    Review Article