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  • In this Review, Kim and Diamond highlight recent advances in our understanding of the host factors required for alphavirus entry, the mechanisms of action by which protective antibodies inhibit different steps in the alphavirus infection cycle and candidate alphavirus vaccines currently under clinical evaluation.

    • Arthur S. Kim
    • Michael S. Diamond
    Review Article
  • Sewage surveillance could provide information on the resistance situation in the underlying population and on environmental transmission risks. There are opportunities to make such surveillance data more informative and actionable, but there are also challenges.

    • D. G. Joakim Larsson
    • Carl-Fredrik Flach
    • Ramanan Laxminarayan
    Comment
  • This study reports that Enterococcus species can remodel the metabolic environment in the gut and reprogramme the metabolism of Clostridioides difficile, enhancing its fitness and virulence.

    • Agustina Taglialegna
    Research Highlight
  • A better understanding of the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is essential to inform public health measures. In this Review, Puhach, Meyer and Eckerle explore insights into what influences SARS-CoV-2 shedding, how this drives transmission and the tools available to measure this and determine infectiousness.

    • Olha Puhach
    • Benjamin Meyer
    • Isabella Eckerle
    Review Article
  • This month’s Genome Watch highlights how genome sequencing can be used to understand the strain-level diversity, evolution and spatial structure of the human microbiome, and to inform therapeutic strategies.

    • Gemma G. R. Murray
    • Chrispin Chaguza
    Genome Watch
  • This Review discusses the ecophysiology and diversity of Trichoderma and the complexity of its relationships in the agroecosystem environment. Considerations are also presented on how to advance Trichoderma applications in real-world scenarios, contributing towards eco-sustainable agriculture.

    • Sheridan L. Woo
    • Rosa Hermosa
    • Enrique Monte
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Blair, Webber and colleagues explore our understanding of the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, including reduced permeability, antibiotic efflux, modification or alteration of the antibiotic target, modification or destruction of the drug itself, and bypass of metabolic pathways. They also discuss how this information can aid in developing the next generation of antimicrobial therapies.

    • Elizabeth M. Darby
    • Eleftheria Trampari
    • Jessica M. A. Blair
    Review Article
  • This study reports that the Chlamydia trachomatis effector TepP modulates epithelial tight junctions to promote infection.

    • Andrea Du Toit
    Research Highlight
  • This study characterized the role of periplasmic PgfA in mycobacterial growth and division.

    • Andrea Du Toit
    Research Highlight
  • This study reports the identification of a highly divergent lineage of SARS-CoV-2 in white-tailed deer and provides evidence of deer-to-human transmission.

    • Andrea Du Toit
    Research Highlight
  • A new study identified two distinct lineages of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in the United States with evidence of genome editing by host apolipoprotein B editing complex (APOBEC3) cytosine deaminase, which might be accelerating MPXV evolution.

    • Michael Attwaters
    Research Highlight
  • A recent study used a zebrafish model to show that the microbiota promotes social behaviour by stimulating microglial pruning of brain circuits during early neurodevelopment.

    • Michael Attwaters
    Research Highlight
  • In this study, a multinational and multidisciplinary panel of experts provides actionable recommendations for policy makers to end the COVID-19 pandemic.

    • Michael Attwaters
    Research Highlight
  • Like the gut, the lung harbours a diverse, interacting assortment of microbiota. In this review, Natalini, Singh and Segal examine the role of the lung microbiome in health and disease and discuss future work that is needed to produce novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools aimed at improving lung health.

    • Jake G. Natalini
    • Shivani Singh
    • Leopoldo N. Segal
    Review Article
  • A recent study reports that nicotine accumulates in the gut during smoking and promotes the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and shows that the gut bacterium Bacteroides xylanisolvens can degrade nicotine.

    • Agustina Taglialegna
    Research Highlight
  • Soil viruses are highly abundant and have important roles in the regulation of host dynamics and soil ecology. In this Review, Jansson and Wu explore our current understanding of soil viral diversity and ecology, and how climate change (such as extended and extreme drought events or more flooding and altered precipitation patterns) is influencing soil viruses.

    • Janet K. Jansson
    • Ruonan Wu
    Review Article
  • This study identifies the Mycobacterium tuberculosis effector protein PtpB and shows that it counteracts gasdermin D-mediated pyroptosis and inflammatory cytokine release by altering the phospholipid composition of the host membrane.

    • Andrea Du Toit
    Research Highlight
  • Global COVID-19 vaccine equity remains aspirational for much of the world. But the emergence of rapidly evolving SARS-CoV-2 variants provides new opportunities to correct past public policies, support local vaccine production and combat rising anti-vaccine aggression.

    • Peter J. Hotez
    Comment
  • In this Review, Carabelli, Robertson and colleagues explore data on the neutralization of globally circulating variants of concern by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and discuss how knowledge of the dynamics of viral evasion of mAbs can contribute to viral surveillance and the development of novel mAb treatments, as well as inform predictions of resistance that may arise in the future.

    • MacGregor Cox
    • Thomas P. Peacock
    • Alessandro M. Carabelli
    Review Article