Bacterial biofilms

Bacterial Biofilms

This Focus issue explores biofilm formation, gradients and consequences of heterogeneity, tolerance of biofilms to antibiotics and host responses, and the spatial patterning of biofilms in infections.



    • In this Review, Rogers, Mileto and Lyras explore the impact of enteric bacterial infections at and beyond the epithelial barrier. They highlight how different bacterial pathogens disrupt structural first line defences of the gut, the influence this has on the systemic dissemination of gut contents, the acute inflammatory processes that are triggered and the collective implication of these events on the regeneration of efficient barrier functions.

      • Ashleigh P. Rogers
      • Steven J. Mileto
      • Dena Lyras
      Review Article
    • In this Review, Brouns and colleagues discuss our current understanding of RNA-targeting type III and type VI CRISPR–Cas systems by detailing their composition, properties and defence processes, and describing the biological rationale behind the broad activated immune responses as an effective strategy to combat viral infection.

      • Sam P. B. van Beljouw
      • Jasper Sanders
      • Stan J. J. Brouns
      Review Article
    • In this Review, Flemming et al. revisit our understanding of the biofilm matrix, focusing on the diversity of the extracellular polymeric substance components and novel aspects of mechanisms and consequences of their functional interactions.

      • Hans-Curt Flemming
      • Eric D. van Hullebusch
      • Stefan Wuertz
      Review Article
    • Lassa fever is a viral haemorrhagic fever that spills over from its rodent reservoir. Continued viral evolution and increasing exposure make Lassa virus a high-risk pathogen. In this Review, Garry highlights new insights into the virology, disease presentation and potential countermeasures.

      • Robert F. Garry
      Review Article
    • In this Review, Severn and Horswill highlight new developments in our understanding of Staphylococcus epidermidis strain diversity, skin colonization dynamics and its multifaceted positive and negative interactions with the host and other members of the skin microbiota during skin colonization or infection.

      • Morgan M. Severn
      • Alexander R. Horswill
      Review Article
  • A recent study characterizes an inducible morphotype of Cryptococcus neoformans that is critical for extrapulmonary organ entry.

    • Agustina Taglialegna
    Research Highlight
  • Two studies report how soil microbiota adapts after wildfires and soil warming.

    • Lucia Brunello
    Research Highlight
  • This study reports viral transmission between two phytopathogenic species that have similar ecological niches on oilseed rape.

    • Andrea Du Toit
    In Brief
  • This study provides novel insights into the architecture of the cell division site and the dynamics of septal peptidoglycan biogenesis.

    • Andrea Du Toit
    In Brief
  • This study describes a novel parasitic interaction between bacteria and archaea.

    • Andrea Du Toit
    In Brief
  • The biofilm community has historically been very successful in aggregating scientists from very diverse fields. Now, we must harness innovative technologies across disciplines to illuminate the biofilm microenvironment and create in vitro models that accurately recapitulate natural environments.

    • Kendra P. Rumbaugh
SARS-CoV-2 virions


The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has led to substantial disease and millions of deaths worldwide, with devastating socio-economic impacts. This Series contains articles from Nature Reviews Microbiology that explore the basic biology, epidemiology, emergence, evolution and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and pathogenic coronaviruses, as well as options for the control and prevention of COVID-19.


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