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Scientists’ warning to humanity: microorganisms and climate change

Latest Reviews

  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Andersson and colleagues outline factors to consider when studying and defining heteroresistance, and they explore the different genetic mechanisms underlying heterogeneity in antibiotic resistance phenotypes, the impact of such mechanisms on the efficacy of treatment and the methods and difficulties in diagnosing heteroresistance in clinical bacterial isolates.

    • Dan I. Andersson
    • , Hervé Nicoloff
    •  & Karin Hjort
  • Consensus Statement | | open

    The microbial majority with which we share Earth often goes unnoticed despite underlying major biogeochemical cycles and food webs, thereby taking a key role in climate change. This Consensus Statement highlights the importance of climate change microbiology and issues a call to action for all microbiologists.

    • Ricardo Cavicchioli
    • , William J. Ripple
    • , Kenneth N. Timmis
    • , Farooq Azam
    • , Lars R. Bakken
    • , Matthew Baylis
    • , Michael J. Behrenfeld
    • , Antje Boetius
    • , Philip W. Boyd
    • , Aimée T. Classen
    • , Thomas W. Crowther
    • , Roberto Danovaro
    • , Christine M. Foreman
    • , Jef Huisman
    • , David A. Hutchins
    • , Janet K. Jansson
    • , David M. Karl
    • , Britt Koskella
    • , David B. Mark Welch
    • , Jennifer B. H. Martiny
    • , Mary Ann Moran
    • , Victoria J. Orphan
    • , David S. Reay
    • , Justin V. Remais
    • , Virginia I. Rich
    • , Brajesh K. Singh
    • , Lisa Y. Stein
    • , Frank J. Stewart
    • , Matthew B. Sullivan
    • , Madeleine J. H. van Oppen
    • , Scott C. Weaver
    • , Eric A. Webb
    •  & Nicole S. Webster
  • Review Article |

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) offers new opportunities in the clinical management and surveillance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this Review, Meehan and colleagues explore the current landscape of WGS pipelines and applications, and set out best practices for M. tuberculosis WGS, including standards for bioinformatics pipelines, curated repositories of resistance-causing variants, phylogenetic analyses, quality control and standardized reporting.

    • Conor J. Meehan
    • , Galo A. Goig
    • , Thomas A. Kohl
    • , Lennert Verboven
    • , Anzaan Dippenaar
    • , Matthew Ezewudo
    • , Maha R. Farhat
    • , Jennifer L. Guthrie
    • , Kris Laukens
    • , Paolo Miotto
    • , Boatema Ofori-Anyinam
    • , Viola Dreyer
    • , Philip Supply
    • , Anita Suresh
    • , Christian Utpatel
    • , Dick van Soolingen
    • , Yang Zhou
    • , Philip M. Ashton
    • , Daniela Brites
    • , Andrea M. Cabibbe
    • , Bouke C. de Jong
    • , Margaretha de Vos
    • , Fabrizio Menardo
    • , Sebastien Gagneux
    • , Qian Gao
    • , Tim H. Heupink
    • , Qingyun Liu
    • , Chloé Loiseau
    • , Leen Rigouts
    • , Timothy C. Rodwell
    • , Elisa Tagliani
    • , Timothy M. Walker
    • , Robin M. Warren
    • , Yanlin Zhao
    • , Matteo Zignol
    • , Marco Schito
    • , Jennifer Gardy
    • , Daniela M. Cirillo
    • , Stefan Niemann
    • , Inaki Comas
    •  & Annelies Van Rie
  • Analysis |

    CRISPR–Cas systems in bacteria and archaea have multifaceted evolutionary relationships with mobile genetic elements (MGEs), including viruses, plasmids and transposons. CRISPR–Cas systems or their components have also been recruited by MGEs on many independent occasions. In this Analysis article, Koonin and colleagues investigate and substantially expand the range of CRISPR–Cas components carried by MGEs.

    • Guilhem Faure
    • , Sergey A. Shmakov
    • , Winston X. Yan
    • , David R. Cheng
    • , David A. Scott
    • , Joseph E. Peters
    • , Kira S. Makarova
    •  & Eugene V. Koonin
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Reyes-Lamothe and Sherratt describe the contributions of chromosome structure and nucleoid folding to cell cycle regulation, detail the cellular processes involved in the initiation of DNA replication and DNA segregation and explore how those processes are linked to cell growth and cell division.

    • Rodrigo Reyes-Lamothe
    •  & David J. Sherratt
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Mitchell and Silhavy explore the cellular envelope stress response pathways and discuss what occurs when these pathways are aberrantly activated. They also discuss how recent insights into stress response activation have highlighted the extreme toxicity of unfolded outer membrane proteins.

    • Angela M. Mitchell
    •  & Thomas J. Silhavy

News & Comment

  • Under the Lens |

    This month’s Under the Lens discusses the use of a novel label-free imaging method to study pilus dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution.

    • Samuel J. Hickman
  • In Brief |

    This study found that a Pseudomonas phage-encoded tubulin-like protein forms treadmilling filaments in infected hosts to transport viral capsids to sites of DNA packaging.

    • Ashley York
  • In Brief |

    A recent study reports an enzymatic pathway in the human gut microbiome that converts A type blood into the universal donor type, which could lead to an increase in the supply of universal donor blood.

    • Ashley York
  • Research Highlight |

    A recent study reports that Cas13 induces a state of dormancy in bacteria, which inhibits viral replication and the rise of CRISPR-resistant phages.

    • Ashley York

Milestone

Milestones in human microbiota research

The human body is home to trillions of microorganisms, which have direct and indirect impacts on health and disease. The microbiota that resides in our mucosal surfaces, such as the skin, mouth, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts, is a diverse community of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, which collectively have 100-fold more genes that their human host.

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