Volume 19 Issue 4, April 2018

Volume 19 Issue 4

'A sea of vesicles' by Vicky Summersby, inspired by the Review on p213.

Comment

Research Highlights

  • Research Highlight |

    Developmental enhancers can function in an additive manner and are regulated by RNA polymerase II pausing and by the directionality of transcription.

    • Eytan Zlotorynski
  • Research Highlight |

    Fatty acid oxidation and increased acetyl-CoA levels act to suppress endothelial–mesenchymal transition.

    • Paulina Strzyz
  • Research Highlight |

    Oncogenes induce firing of replication origins at transcribed genes; this promotes transcription–replication conflicts and genome instability.

    • Eytan Zlotorynski
  • Research Highlight |

    Myosin VI is recruited to ubiquitylated mitochondria and drives their encapsulation into actin cages to sequester them for mitophagy.

    • Paulina Strzyz

    Focus:

  • Journal Club

  • Journal Club |

    Philip Cohen highlights how two studies from the laboratory of Zhijian Chen, published in 2000 and 2001, started a new era in the study of signal transduction pathways and the roles of ubiquitin chains.

    • Philip Cohen

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Cells produce a wide variety of extracellular vesicles (subdivided into exosomes and microvesicles), which carry a multitude of cargoes, including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. These vesicles have emerged as important means of cell–cell communication in physiology and disease, and their use in the clinic is now being explored.

    • Guillaume van Niel
    • , Gisela D'Angelo
    •  & Graça Raposo
  • Review Article |

    The assembly and maintenance of heterochromatin are carried out by distinct mechanisms that include factors that bind nascent transcripts to recruit chromatin-modifying enzymes. The resulting post-translational modifications on heterochromatic histones contribute to the regulation of development by restricting lineage-specific gene expression.

    • Robin C. Allshire
    •  & Hiten D. Madhani
  • Review Article |

    Gene expression programmes that are induced by inflammatory or oncogenic signals are controlled by shared chromatin regulators. Such chromatin dependencies are known to regulate oncogenes and inflammation-promoting genes and can be leveraged to combine and increase the effectiveness of immune-cell-based therapies with epigenetic therapies.

    • Ivan Marazzi
    • , Benjamin D. Greenbaum
    • , Diana H. P. Low
    •  & Ernesto Guccione
  • Review Article |

    The evolutionarily conserved mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription (Mediator) complex is a general regulator of transcription. Recent structural and functional studies have provided important insights into the mechanisms of transcription activation by Mediator and have also revealed a new function of this complex in genome organization and suggested that it could be therapeutically targeted in disease.

    • Julie Soutourina