Volume 17 Issue 11, November 2016

Volume 17 Issue 11

'DNA relaxation' by Vicky Summersby, inspired by the Review on p703.

Research Highlights

  • Research Highlight |

    Elucidation of the mechanisms of autophagy and the work on designing molecular machines have been awarded with a 2016 Nobel Prize, in the fields of Physiology or Medicine and in Chemistry, respectively.

    • Paulina Strzyz
  • Research Highlight |

    Cyclin A2 ensures accurate chromosome segregation through cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activation, and proper DNA replication and repair through previously uncharacterized kinase-independent RNA-binding activity.

    • Kim Baumann
  • Research Highlight |

    Microtubule depolymerization can be arrested and growth rescued at sites where the lattice is self-repaired following local damage.

    • Paulina Strzyz
  • Journal Club

  • Journal Club |

    Matthias Mann describes a 1992 paper by Donald Hunt and colleagues that revolutionized the use of mass spectrometry in molecular biology.

    • Matthias Mann

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent protein deacylases that can reverse various aspects of ageing in model organisms. Trials in non-human primates and humans indicate that sirtuin-activating compounds (STACs) and NAD+ precursors are safe and effective in treating inflammatory and metabolic disorders, thereby holding great potential to treat various diseases and to extend lifespan in humans.

    • Michael S. Bonkowski
    •  & David A. Sinclair
  • Review Article |

    Brown adipocytes (which reside in brown adipose tissue) and beige adipocytes (which develop in white adipose tissue in response to cold) expend energy to produce heat and are therefore important in regulating body temperature and body weight. Recent studies provide insights into the developmental origins of brown and beige adipocytes and into the regulation of their differentiation and function.

    • Wenshan Wang
    •  & Patrick Seale
  • Review Article |

    Topoisomerases introduce transient DNA breaks to relax supercoiled DNA, thereby mediating chromatin dynamics and stability, transcription, replication and DNA damage repair. Topoisomerases are targets of various anticancer drugs, and their deregulation can cause, in addition to cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and immune disorders.

    • Yves Pommier
    • , Yilun Sun
    • , Shar-yin N. Huang
    •  & John L. Nitiss
  • Review Article |

    The Notch signalling pathway functions in many processes — from developmental patterning to cell growth and cell death. As the complexity of Notch signalling regulation is being unravelled at the levels of cell-surface ligand–receptor interactions and of gene expression, we are gaining a deeper understanding of how this conserved pathway can lead to such diverse cellular responses.

    • Sarah J. Bray