Volume 15 Issue 9, September 2014

Volume 15 Issue 9

'Motor Wars' by Vicky Summersby, inspired by the Review on p615.

Research Highlights

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    microRNAs (miRNAs) promote and stabilize cells fates during the differentiation of stem and progenitor cells into muscle, blood, skin and neural tissues. These miRNAs are part of complex networks that tightly regulate their function at multiple levels: transcription, biogenesis, stability and target site availability, as well as their cooperation with other miRNAs and RNA- binding proteins.

    • Archana Shenoy
    •  & Robert H. Blelloch
  • Review Article |

    Lamellipodial protrusion is powered by actin polymerization that is mediated through the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3)-induced nucleation of branched actin networks and the elongation of actin filaments. These processes are regulated by positive and negative feedback loops centred around the GTPase RAC, and the balance between them determines lamellipodial and directional persistence during cell migration.

    • Matthias Krause
    •  & Alexis Gautreau
  • Review Article |

    RNAi is used for genome-wide functional screens in cultured cells and animals. New experimental and bioinformatics approaches, including the combination of RNAi with genome-editing strategies, has improved the efficacy of RNAi screening and follow-up experiments, and enhanced our understanding of gene function and regulatory networks.

    • Stephanie E. Mohr
    • , Jennifer A. Smith
    • , Caroline E. Shamu
    • , Ralph A. Neumüller
    •  & Norbert Perrimon
  • Review Article |

    Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes — cohesin, condensin and the SMC5/6 complex — regulate sister chromatid cohesion, chromosome condensation, and DNA replication, repair and transcription. Insights into how they may execute such a range of functions are emerging from analyses of their chromosomal binding, combined with their capacity to act as intermolecular and intramolecular linkers of DNA molecules.

    • Kristian Jeppsson
    • , Takaharu Kanno
    • , Katsuhiko Shirahige
    •  & Camilla Sjögren
  • Review Article |

    Bidirectional movement by oppositely directed motors attached to the same cargo is frequently described as a 'tug of war'. However, some studies suggest that inhibiting one motor diminishes motility in both directions. To resolve this paradox, three bidirectional transport models, termed microtubule tethering, mechanical activation and steric disinhibition, are proposed, and a general mathematical modelling framework for bidirectional cargo transport is described.

    • William O. Hancock