Volume 15 Issue 3, March 2014

Volume 15 Issue 3

'Making new contacts' by Vicky Summersby, inspired by the Progress on p155.

Correspondence

Research Highlights

Progress

  • Progress |

    Our understanding of the downstream effectors and upstream regulators of target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling continues to grow. In particular, recent global 'omics' studies have revealed physiological roles of mammalian TOR (mTOR) in protein, nucleotide and lipid synthesis, and other studies showed that Hippo, WNT and Notch signalling are novel regulators of mTOR.

    • Mitsugu Shimobayashi
    •  & Michael N. Hall

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) are cytoskeletal and nucleoskeletal structures that promote cell integrity and intracellular communication and contribute to subcellular and tissue-specific functions. Our understanding of how post-translational modifications of IF proteins (including nuclear lamins and cytoplasmic keratins, vimentin, desmin, neurofilaments and glial fibrillary acidic protein, among others) regulate IF function is increasing.

    • Natasha T. Snider
    •  & M. Bishr Omary
  • Review Article |

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is integral to development and pathology. This switch in cell differentiation and behaviour requires key transcription factors, including SNAIL, zinc-finger E-box-binding (ZEB) and basic helix–loop–helix transcription factors, and is regulated by several signalling pathways, including those mediated by the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) family.

    • Samy Lamouille
    • , Jian Xu
    •  & Rik Derynck
  • Review Article |

    Endocycling cells successively replicate their genomes without segregating chromosomes during mitosis and thereby become polyploid. Lack of chromosome segregation typically results from downregulation of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase activity. Endocycles probably evolved many times, and the various endocycle mechanisms found in nature highlight the versatility of the cell cycle control machinery.

    • Bruce A. Edgar
    • , Norman Zielke
    •  & Crisanto Gutierrez

Perspectives

    Opinion

  • Opinion |

    Proteome maintenance was thought to be controlled in a cell-autonomous manner. However, recent findings suggest that proteostasis can be systemically regulated. Protein-folding defects systemically activate proteostasis mechanisms through signalling pathways that coordinate stress responses among tissues, and this may also coordinate ageing rates between tissues.

    • Rebecca C. Taylor
    • , Kristen M. Berendzen
    •  & Andrew Dillin