A visual guide to the cell types that make the respiratory tract and its architecture, and to the lung cell culture models that can be used to study the pathophysiology of the respiratory system.
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are multipotent, self-renewing progenitors that generate all mature blood cells.
Pluripotency refers to the ability of cells to differentiate into cell types of all three embryonic germ layers.
This year marks the thirtieth anniversary since mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were first isolated from blastocysts.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells that were originally identified in the bone marrow stroma, where they regulate key stages of haematopoiesis.
During autophagy, double-membrane structures called autophagosomes engulf cytosol or organelles and deliver them to lysosomes (in mammalian cells) or the vacuole (in yeast) to be degraded and recycled.
The discovery that green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria could be used to label proteins in cells led to a revolution in our ability to track proteins in live cells and whole organisms.
Ubiquitylation is a highly regulated process that tags proteins to specify distinct functional outcomes.
Ubiquitination is a reversible post-translational modification with key roles in protein stability, as well as in various signal transduction cascades, membrane trafficking and mitosis.
In 1979 the discovery of p53 was reported. The gene encoding p53 (TP53) was initially believed to be an oncogene but 10 years later it was correctly characterized as a tumour suppressor, which led to a steep rise in p53 research.
Recent progress in cloning, deep sequencing and bioinformatics have revealed an astounding landscape of small RNAs in eukaryotic cells.
Pluripotent cells offer great promise for the future of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. This Poster by Christopher Lengner and Rudolf Jaenisch compares and contrasts the properties of pluripotent embryonic stem cells with those of laboratory-generated pluripotent cells.
Lipids are important mediators in cancer and inflammation, and in cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases.
Histones can be covalently modified by the addition of various chemical appendages, and distinct histone marks are associated with most DNA transactions (transcription, repair, and so on) and have been implicated as carriers of epigenetic identity.
Stem cells have been identified and characterized in several mammalian tissues.
The protein complement that underlies the behaviour of any cell type is the result of selective gene expression and alternative RNA splicing.
At the end of last year, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004 was awarded in Stockholm, Sweden, to Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose for their role in the discovery of a system for regulated protein degradation — the ubiquitin–proteasome system1.
Defects in the expression or function of proteins with either pro-apoptotic (indicated in red) or anti-apoptotic (green) consequences have a causative or contributing role in the pathogenesis or progression of several diseases.
How do signals received at the cell membrane reach the nucleus?