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  • Integrator is the only metazoan-specific RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-associated large multisubunit complex. Processing of non-coding RNAs by Integrator is essential for their biogenesis, and, at protein-coding genes, Integrator regulates Pol II promoter-proximal pausing and elongation. Consequently, Integrator has diverse roles in development and tumorigenesis.

    • Sarah A. Welsh
    • Alessandro Gardini
    Review Article
  • Cell competition results in stochastic cell turnover or elimination of less fit cells from a tissue. Although cell competition generally supports tissue development and homeostasis, it can also promote malignant growth and is subverted during ageing. Addressing how cell fitness is determined and sensed is being actively pursued.

    • Sanne M. van Neerven
    • Louis Vermeulen
    Review Article
  • DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is important for replication-fork reversal under replication stress, and its inhibition can abolish PARP-inhibitor resistance in cancer cells.

    • Eytan Zlotorynski
    Research Highlight
  • Cell–extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions occur at specialized, multi-protein adhesion complexes, with clustered integrins as the predominant ECM receptors. Progress in characterization of adhesion composition, organization and dynamics in response to force has improved understanding of adhesion maturation and turnover and the relationships between adhesion structures and functions.

    • Pakorn Kanchanawong
    • David A. Calderwood
    Review Article
  • Kalkavan et al. show how drug-tolerant persister cells evade apoptosis by release of sublethal cytochrome c and activation of the integrated stress response.

    • Michael Attwaters
    Research Highlight
  • PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with essential roles in germ line development through silencing of transposable elements and in regulation of protein-coding genes. Recent studies have deepened our understanding of the biogenesis and function of piRNAs and their roles in infertility, cancer and neurological diseases in humans.

    • Xin Wang
    • Anne Ramat
    • Mo-Fang Liu
    Review Article
  • Podosomes and invadopodia, collectively called ‘invadosomes’, are actin-based structures that drive proteolytic invasion in various physiologically relevant cell types (including osteoclasts, immune cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts) and in cancer cells. Recent work has expanded our understanding of the architecture and mechanisms of invadosomes, and has revealed their diverse functions beyond matrix degradation.

    • Stefan Linder
    • Pasquale Cervero
    • John Condeelis
    Review Article
  • Microautophagy involves direct engulfment of cytoplasmic components, including proteins and organelles, by lysosomes and late endosomes for degradation. Although it is one of three main types of autophagy — along with macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy — its mechanisms and physiological roles have only recently begun to emerge.

    • Liming Wang
    • Daniel J. Klionsky
    • Han-Ming Shen
    Review Article
  • Leilei Chen describes the discovery that adenosine-to-inosine editing by ADAR1 marks endogenous double-stranded RNA as self, to prevent it from triggering innate immunity.

    • Leilei Chen
    Journal Club
  • Fidelity of meiosis in human oocytes can be compromised, leading to egg aneuploidy and impaired embryo development, which increase with advanced maternal age. Recent studies have shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant chromosome segregation during oocyte meiosis and the impact of ageing on this process.

    • Chloe Charalambous
    • Alexandre Webster
    • Melina Schuh
    Review Article
  • Steinhorst et al. show how calcium signal induced by salt stress is ‘decoded’ by plant roots to provide systemic response and to increase salt tolerance.

    • Paulina Strzyz
    Research Highlight
  • Transmembrane proteins associate with specific subsets of lipids, which create nano-environments with unique properties. Better understanding of how these nano-environments regulate protein dynamics and function will afford means to control activities of transmembrane proteins, many of which serve essential signalling and transport roles.

    • Ilya Levental
    • Ed Lyman
    Review Article
  • During mammalian development, certain regulatory-gene promoters acquire both histone modifications associated with gene activation and with gene repression (bivalent chromatin), which is key to cell-lineage specification. Recent work has expanded our understanding of the molecular basis of bivalent chromatin and its roles in development and cancer.

    • Trisha A. Macrae
    • Julie Fothergill-Robinson
    • Miguel Ramalho-Santos
    Review Article
  • Elizabeth Chen looks back on the work by Beatrice Mintz and Wilber Baker (1967) that settled the debate on the origin of multinucleation in skeletal muscle cells.

    • Elizabeth H. Chen
    Journal Club
  • Julia Bailey-Serres highlights early work on the molecular mechanisms of plant stress responses, indicating that selective translation is a key driver of plant resilience to acute stresses.

    • Julia Bailey-Serres
    Journal Club