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  • Translation is controlled mainly during its initiation. Recent studies in yeast and mammals provide new insights into the mechanism of translation initiation regulation in health and in various diseases, and open avenues for the development of innovative therapies targeting the translation machinery.

    • Jailson Brito Querido
    • Irene Díaz-López
    • V. Ramakrishnan
    Review Article
  • Lysosomes orchestrate key cellular functions such as nutrient sensing, degradation of macromolecules and stress adaptation. This Review discusses the integration of signalling pathways at the lysosome and highlights the interaction of lysosomes with other organelles and mechanisms that ensure lysosome homeostasis.

    • Carmine Settembre
    • Rushika M. Perera
    Review Article
  • In this Tools of the Trade article, Manuela Richter (Dumont lab) describes a method to probe mechanisms of cytoskeletal network re-organization that uses a targeted laser to both trigger network remodelling and track network dynamics.

    • Manuela Richter
    Tools of the Trade
  • Intrinsically disordered regions of proteins lack a defined 3D structure and exist in a collection of interconverting conformations. Recent work is shedding light on how — through their conformational malleability and adaptability — intrinsically disordered regions extend the repertoire of macromolecular interactions in the cell and contribute to key cellular functions.

    • Alex S. Holehouse
    • Birthe B. Kragelund
    Review Article
  • In this Tools of the Trade article, Bohan Zhang (Gladyshev lab) discusses how the use of extended heterochronic parabiosis in mice (surgical connection between circulatory systems for an extended period), followed by detachment, can shed light on potential mechanisms that reverse mammalian ageing.

    • Bohan Zhang
    Tools of the Trade
  • The regenerative abilities of mammalian hair follicles are facilitated by the proliferation of hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs), which reside in specialized niches within the skin. Recent studies shed light on how local signals and systemic inputs from the body and the environment regulate HFSC function.

    • Bing Zhang
    • Ting Chen
    Review Article
  • Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are relics of ancient retroviral infections, which provide coding and non-coding sequences to the human genome. Emerging evidence reveals how HERVs contribute to immune responses and embryogenesis and how infections and mutations can dysregulate them and contribute to neurodegeneration, inflammation and oncogenesis.

    • Nicholas Dopkins
    • Douglas F. Nixon
    Review Article
  • Phosphorylation of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance factor TFAM during spermatogenesis prevents its import into mitochondria, resulting in elimination of paternal mtDNA and leading to maternal inheritance.

    • Eytan Zlotorynski
    Research Highlight
  • Ernst and Renne highlight two papers, one that discovered and another that structurally defined the ER–mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) that facilitates the exchange of lipids between the ER and mitochondria.

    • Mike F. Renne
    • Robert Ernst
    Journal Club
  • Eukaryotic membrane fusion is hindered by energy barriers and often requires soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) to facilitate formation of a fusion pore. Recent studies describe SNARE activity along the fusion pathway and shed light on the regulation of SNARE complex assembly.

    • Reinhard Jahn
    • David C. Cafiso
    • Lukas K. Tamm
    Review Article
  • Embedded within the complexity of biological systems lies a formidable task: deciphering the intricate architecture of macromolecules. In this Viewpoint, a panel of experts discuss the key challenges and opportunities of macromolecular structure determination, highlighting the crucial synergy between empirical experimentation and artificial intelligence-based techniques in unravelling these complexities.

    • Xiao-chen Bai
    • Tamir Gonen
    • Jianyi Yang
  • Targeted editing of mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes has therapeutic, agricultural and environmental potential, but it is challenging owing to inability of transfecting (guide) RNA into the organelles. Recent designs of protein-only, programmable base editors open promising avenues for organellar DNA editing in cell lines, animals and plants.

    • Jin-Soo Kim
    • Jia Chen
    Review Article
  • A unique feature of mitochondrial DNA function is the coupling of initiation of transcription with that of replication. Tan et al. discuss the choice between initiation of either process, and how mitochondrial DNA packaging into nucleoids controls its accessibility and function in human cells.

    • Benedict G. Tan
    • Claes M. Gustafsson
    • Maria Falkenberg
    Review Article
  • Iron homeostasis in animals is tightly controlled, and numerous cellular pathways regulate iron uptake, storage, metabolism and secretion. Recent findings provide new insights into the sensory systems that fine-tune iron homeostasis and explain how cellular and systemic iron fluxes intersect.

    • Bruno Galy
    • Marcus Conrad
    • Martina Muckenthaler
    Review Article