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Volume 21 Issue 10, October 2021

The cover of this issue celebrates the 20th anniversary of Nature Reviews Immunology. See Editorial

Cover design: Simon Bradbrook

Editorial

  • As we celebrate 20 years since the launch of Nature Reviews Immunology, we reflect on how far the field of immunology has advanced over the past two decades.

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    Editorial

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Research Highlights

  • Arturo Zychlinsky and Volker Brinkman recall the discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps.

    • Volker Brinkmann
    • Arturo Zychlinsky

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    Journal Club
  • In this Journal Club, Zitvogel and Kroemer discuss a landmark study that initiated the genetic and molecular characterization of the immune–microbiota crosstalk.

    • Laurence Zitvogel
    • Guido Kroemer

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    Journal Club
  • Eric Vivier describes the unexpected discovery of new populations of innate-like lymphocytes and the development of the innate lymphoid cell nomenclature.

    • Eric Vivier

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    Journal Club
  • Max Cooper recalls the discovery of variable lymphocyte receptors in lampreys and hagfish and explains the significance of this for understanding how adaptive immunity evolved in vertebrates.

    • Max Cooper

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    Journal Club
  • Shane Crotty discusses three independent studies published in 2009 that characterized T follicular helper cells as a distinct subset of CD4+ T cells on the basis of selective expression of BCL6.

    • Shane Crotty

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    Journal Club
  • Laura Mackay highlights seminal studies that shed light on tissue immunity and the unique biology of tissue-resident memory T cells.

    • Laura K. Mackay

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    Journal Club
  • Katalin Karikó describes the discovery that replacing uridine with pseudouridine renders RNA non-immunogenic. This paved the way for developing mRNA for protein replacement therapy and, surprisingly, also for mRNA-based vaccine development.

    • Katalin Karikó

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    Journal Club
  • Although it was known for decades that type I interferons are crucial for antiviral immunity, it was not until the discovery of cGAS and cGAMP signalling in 2013 that we understood how cytosolic DNA induces them in infected cells, as explained by Andrea Ablasser.

    • Andrea Ablasser

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    Journal Club
  • Derek Gilroy describes two studies that revealed an unexpected mechanism by which the resolution of inflammation can be induced.

    • Derek W. Gilroy

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    Journal Club
  • Feng Shao highlights the studies that led to the discovery and definition of pyroptosis as gasdermin-mediated programmed necrotic cell death.

    • Feng Shao

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    Journal Club
  • Eicke Latz recalls the discovery of the inflammasome in 2002 and how it revolutionized our understanding of inflammation and is now a target of new immunotherapeutics for inflammatory disease.

    • Eicke Latz

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    Journal Club
  • Mihai Netea tells us how the dichotomy of innate and adaptive immunity was blurred with the description of trained immunity in 2012 — a process by which innate immune cells and their progenitors store memory of past infections by epigenetic reprogramming.

    • Mihai G. Netea

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    Journal Club
  • Gwendalyn Randolph reminds us of how our view of macrophage origin and identity has drastically changed over the past 15 years.

    • Gwendalyn J. Randolph

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    Journal Club
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Progress

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Reviews

  • This Review from Jeff Rathmell and colleagues serves as a guide to immunologists on how to select the appropriate tools and techniques to interrogate metabolism in their experimental systems. The authors provide advice for avoiding common mistakes and on how best to employ metabolomics.

    • Kelsey Voss
    • Hanna S. Hong
    • Jeffrey C. Rathmell
    Review Article
  • Mark Schmitt and Florian Greten describe the mechanisms by which chronic inflammation can initiate tumorigenesis and by which tumour-elicited and therapy-induced inflammation can promote colorectal cancer, as well as the role of extrinsic factors such as diet, the microbiota and the mycobiota.

    • Mark Schmitt
    • Florian R. Greten
    Review Article
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Perspectives

  • In this Perspective, McInnes and Gravallese highlight the remarkable progress made over the past 20 years in treating immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. The available therapies have progressed from broad-spectrum immune modulators to highly targeted biological and small-molecule agents as our understanding of disease mechanisms has advanced.

    • Iain B. McInnes
    • Ellen M. Gravallese

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    Perspective
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