Latest Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Vaccine trials against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are showing encouraging results. This Review discusses current Mtb vaccine design in the light of new insights into the immunology of tuberculosis infection.

    • Peter Andersen
    •  & Thomas J. Scriba
  • Review Article |

    Tuft cells captured the attention of immunologists with recent discoveries linking them to type 2 immunity in the small intestine. As described here, these rare secretory epithelial cells act as chemosensory sentinels that detect and relay responses through immune and neuronal cells.

    • Christoph Schneider
    • , Claire E. O’Leary
    •  & Richard M. Locksley
  • Review Article |

    This Review covers new insights into the immune roles of complement. The authors discuss the pathways that link complement signalling with homeostatic and pathological T cell responses and highlight how complement components act intracellularly to shape T cell responses.

    • Edimara S. Reis
    • , Dimitrios C. Mastellos
    • , George Hajishengallis
    •  & John D. Lambris
  • Review Article |

    The NLRP3 inflammasome mediates pro-inflammatory responses and pyroptotic cell death. Here, the authors describe the complex pathways controlling its activation and regulation and how it is being targeted to treat inflammatory diseases.

    • Karen V. Swanson
    • , Meng Deng
    •  & Jenny P.-Y. Ting
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Greg Lemke explains how macrophages are able to sense and respond to dead and dying cells. The author discusses the physiological implications of such macrophage activity.

    • Greg Lemke
  • Review Article |

    This Review presents evidence that supports a role for the immune system in the pathogenesis of hypertension, including the immune cell subsets involved and the means by which these immune cells become activated throughout the course of the disease.

    • Grant R. Drummond
    • , Antony Vinh
    • , Tomasz J. Guzik
    •  & Christopher G. Sobey
  • Review Article |

    John Harty and colleagues explain how different subsets of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and γδ T cells respond to the Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. They discuss the major challenges that need to be overcome in order to harness T cell responses for malaria vaccines and therapies.

    • Samarchith P. Kurup
    • , Noah S. Butler
    •  & John T. Harty
  • Review Article |

    Some immune cells undergo processes that pose unique challenges to the 3D organization of their genomes. These include antigen receptor rearrangement, clonal expansion and the contortion of their nuclei. Here, Allan and colleagues discuss the latest insights into these processes from a structural genomics perspective.

    • Timothy M. Johanson
    • , Wing Fuk Chan
    • , Christine R. Keenan
    •  & Rhys S. Allan
  • Review Article |

    This Review describes the diverse and dynamic chromatin modifications that ensure rapid and appropriate innate immune responses to infection. It also discusses how pathogens themselves modify host responses through epigenetic mechanisms to evade elimination.

    • Qian Zhang
    •  & Xuetao Cao
  • Review Article |

    This Review considers the link between pain and the immune system. Nociceptors are directly activated by immune mediators and microbial products and, in turn, release neuropeptides that shape immune responses. These neuroimmune pathways can contribute to protective immunity from infections but also lead to chronic pain.

    • Pankaj Baral
    • , Swalpa Udit
    •  & Isaac M. Chiu
  • Review Article |

    The intestinal microbiota profoundly shapes host physiology through its production of small molecules and metabolites. Here, Honda and colleagues discuss how these microbial products shape immune function. They further consider the potential of ‘mining’ the microbiota for new microbial and metabolite-based immunotherapies.

    • Ashwin N. Skelly
    • , Yuko Sato
    • , Sean Kearney
    •  & Kenya Honda
  • Review Article |

    Here, the authors explore how the transcription factor T-bet shapes innate and adaptive immune responses during infection. They consider the evolutionary relationship between T-bet and the related transcription factor eomesodermin (EOMES) and explain how T-bet controls the development of effector and memory T cell populations that mediate protective immunity.

    • Gretchen Harms Pritchard
    • , Ross M. Kedl
    •  & Christopher A. Hunter
  • Review Article |

    Developing universal influenza virus vaccines will require understanding how broad and long-lived antibody responses to natural infection with influenza A virus are generated, a topic that has benefited greatly from technologies that enable the analysis of single human B cells.

    • Florian Krammer
  • Perspective |

    Emerging data indicate that neutrophils exist in several different ‘flavours’. Here, the authors outline potential underlying mechanisms for the presence of distinct neutrophil subsets in health and disease.

    • Lai Guan Ng
    • , Renato Ostuni
    •  & Andrés Hidalgo
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Erika Pearce and colleagues detail the metabolic changes that occur in the tumour microenvironment, explaining how these shape immune cell function at these sites. They highlight the potential of targeting these metabolic pathways to treat patients with cancer

    • David O’Sullivan
    • , David E. Sanin
    • , Edward J. Pearce
    •  & Erika L. Pearce
  • Review Article |

    As in other immune cells, the metabolic pathways in natural killer (NK) cells must be configured to meet the demands of their effector functions. This Review describes the specific metabolic requirements for NK cell responses and how defects in NK cell metabolism may contribute to NK cell dysfunction in chronic disease.

    • Katie L. O’Brien
    •  & David K. Finlay
  • Review Article |

    Double-strand breaks in DNA generated during the normal assembly and diversification of lymphocyte antigen receptor genes or by genotoxic agents during infection activate DNA damage responses. Besides repairing damaged DNA, these responses trigger important signalling events that regulate immune cell development and function.

    • Jeffrey J. Bednarski
    •  & Barry P. Sleckman
  • Review Article |

    Recent advances in systems immunology are beginning to elucidate the quantitative rules that govern cytokine-mediated cell-to-cell communication. This Review describes how combining theoretical analysis with experimental validation can lead to a better understanding of cytokine-mediated communication between cells of the immune system.

    • Grégoire Altan-Bonnet
    •  & Ratnadeep Mukherjee
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, DeNardo and Ruffell describe how macrophages shape local immune responses in the tumour microenvironment to both suppress and promote immunity to tumours. The authors also discuss the potential of targeting tumour-associated macrophages to enhance antitumour immune responses.

    • David G. DeNardo
    •  & Brian Ruffell
  • Review Article |

    Diversification of the antibody repertoire is well known to be driven by genetic recombination and mutation. However, it is becoming apparent that other processes can also diversify antibody specificities. Here, Dimitrov and colleagues discuss these unconventional strategies for antibody diversification and consider why these extra strategies have evolved.

    • Alexia Kanyavuz
    • , Annaelle Marey-Jarossay
    • , Sébastien Lacroix-Desmazes
    •  & Jordan D. Dimitrov
  • Review Article |

    During an immune response, macrophage metabolism is diverted to produce the metabolite itaconate, which has anti-inflammatory effects. This Review recounts the story of itaconate, from its discovery to its potentially far-reaching consequences for immunity, host defence and tumorigenesis.

    • Luke A. J. O’Neill
    •  & Maxim N. Artyomov
  • Review Article |

    Different lineages of macrophages respond divergently to immune stimuli and microbial infection. This Review explores our current knowledge of how the different metabolic states of macrophage lineages impact the control or progression of intracellular bacterial infections.

    • David G. Russell
    • , Lu Huang
    •  & Brian C. VanderVen
  • Review Article |

    The existence of four different serotypes of dengue virus poses a challenge to vaccine development, as pre-existing immunity can lead to severe disease during infection with a heterologous serotype. This Review analyses the mechanisms of protective and pathological adaptive immune responses in primary and secondary dengue infection.

    • Ashley L. St. John
    •  & Abhay P. S. Rathore
  • Review Article |

    Dietary salt can have direct effects on immune cell subsets as well as indirect effects through intestinal dysbiosis. We are beginning to appreciate that high salt diets not only are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease but also have marked effects on immune responses.

    • Dominik N. Müller
    • , Nicola Wilck
    • , Stefanie Haase
    • , Markus Kleinewietfeld
    •  & Ralf A. Linker
  • Review Article |

    Regulated calcium signalling, in particular downstream of the T cell receptor, is crucial for many T cell effector functions. This Review provides an overview of the numerous membrane and organellar calcium-permeable channels that are coordinated to fine-tune T cell immunity.

    • Mohamed Trebak
    •  & Jean-Pierre Kinet
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses the importance of autophagy in controlling immune cell differentiation and homeostasis. The authors consider the diverse mechanisms through which autophagy functions to shape the immune system, highlighting its role in the dynamic regulation of metabolism.

    • Alexander J. Clarke
    •  & Anna Katharina Simon
  • Perspective |

    This Opinion article summarizes current models of thinking about multi-locus antigenic diversity of pathogens. The authors describe five hypotheses to explain how host immunity selects for antigenic diversity at the level of the pathogen population.

    • Maria Georgieva
    • , Caroline O. Buckee
    •  & Marc Lipsitch
  • Review Article |

    CARD protein–BCL-10–MALT1 (CBM) signalosomes are key regulators of innate and adaptive immunity and inflammation. This Review summarizes the regulation and function of CBM signalling for host defence and tissue homeostasis and the pathophysiological consequences of genetic CBM alterations in human disease.

    • Jürgen Ruland
    •  & Lara Hartjes
  • Review Article |

    Here, the author provides an overview of the spatial organization of the different subsets of dendritic cells in lymph nodes and spleen and discusses how the temporal microanatomy of secondary lymphoid organs allows for tailored and effective T cell immunity.

    • S. C. Eisenbarth
  • Review Article |

    This Review considers the unique anatomy of the cutaneous immune system. The authors explain how both protective and pathological immune responses are shaped in the skin, its associated appendages (such as hair follicles and sweat glands) and skin-associated lymphoid tissues.

    • Kenji Kabashima
    • , Tetsuya Honda
    • , Florent Ginhoux
    •  & Gyohei Egawa
  • Review Article |

    Self-antigen recognition in the thymus can result in both clonal deletion of developing thymocytes and their diversion into the regulatory T cell lineage. How do thymocyte-intrinsic and thymocyte-extrinsic determinants influence this cell fate choice?

    • Ludger Klein
    • , Ellen A. Robey
    •  & Chyi-Song Hsieh
  • Analysis |

    In this Analysis, the authors discuss different strategies for the post-treatment control of HIV infection. They use mathematical modelling to predict the impact of different interventions and to estimate the therapeutic efficacy required to achieve a functional cure.

    • Miles P. Davenport
    • , David S. Khoury
    • , Deborah Cromer
    • , Sharon R. Lewin
    • , Anthony D. Kelleher
    •  & Stephen J. Kent
  • Review Article |

    The authors review the latest research revealing conserved antiviral activity of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in fungi, plants, invertebrates and mammals.

    • Zhongxin Guo
    • , Yang Li
    •  & Shou-Wei Ding
  • Review Article |

    A-DAM good Review discussing the role of ADAM protein-mediated cleavage of a wide range of substrates in the development and regulation of the immune system, with a focus on ADAM10 and ADAM17.

    • Bart N. Lambrecht
    • , Matthias Vanderkerken
    •  & Hamida Hammad
  • Review Article |

    Recent studies have characterized complex interactions between resident and infiltrating immune cells in the heart and cardiac cells, including cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. This Review explores the role of immune cells in cardiac development and physiological function, as well as heart disease.

    • Filip K. Swirski
    •  & Matthias Nahrendorf
  • Review Article |

    Eric Vivier and colleagues discuss the emerging roles for natural killer (NK) cells and other innate lymphoid cell populations in cancer immunity. The authors highlight the current immunotherapy trials that are targeting NK cells to treat patients with cancer.

    • Laura Chiossone
    • , Pierre-Yves Dumas
    • , Margaux Vienne
    •  & Eric Vivier
  • Perspective |

    Can macrophages derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) be used to effectively model in vivo tissue macrophages? Here, the authors consider the pros and cons of the different protocols for generating macrophages from iPSCs and suggest that a two-step model, based on ontogeny and tissue-specific microenvironment, enables the generation of biologically relevant macrophages.

    • Christopher Z. W. Lee
    • , Tatsuya Kozaki
    •  & Florent Ginhoux
  • Review Article |

    This Review examines the functions of a specialized population of macrophages that make direct contact with or are found within one cell thickness of the abluminal surface of blood vessels in various tissues during both steady-state conditions and pathological processes.

    • Antonio Lapenna
    • , Michele De Palma
    •  & Claire E. Lewis