Latest Research

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  • In this Review, Kipnis and colleagues explain how signals from the immune system can shape host behavioural responses, even in the absence of infection or disease. In particular, the authors focus on the cytokine pathways that modulate behavioural responses and consider the evolutionary basis of these neuroimmune interactions.

    • Andrea Francesca Salvador
    • Kalil Alves de Lima
    • Jonathan Kipnis
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Deborah Fowell and Minsoo Kim highlight the complexity of the biochemical and mechanical cues that facilitate T cell migration. They explain how effector T cells are able to use these cues to navigate through complex tissue environments to respond to pathogens and other immunological challenges.

    • Deborah J. Fowell
    • Minsoo Kim
    Review Article
  • Intestinal IgA is important for regulating the commensal microbiota and for preventing harmful pathogens from colonizing the intestine. In this Review, Huus, Petersen and Finlay consider the host, bacterial and environmental factors that shape IgA–microbiota interactions in the intestine.

    • Kelsey E. Huus
    • Charisse Petersen
    • B. Brett Finlay
    Review Article
  • Although many healthy newborns carry preleukaemic clones, only a small minority of infants will develop overt B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Here, the authors explore the idea that infections can serve as immune stressors that drive the progression of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    • Cesar Cobaleda
    • Carolina Vicente-Dueñas
    • Isidro Sanchez-Garcia
    Review Article
  • Ras homology (RHO) GTPases are signalling proteins that have crucial roles in triggering multiple immune functions. Here, the authors describe the recent discovery of new RHO GTPase partners and genetic mutations in RHO GTPase signalling hubs that may provide novel therapeutic opportunities.

    • Rana El Masri
    • Jérôme Delon
    Review Article
  • This Review from Gabrilovich and colleagues discusses our current understanding of the development and functions of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Recent work has identified unique metabolic properties and gene expression patterns in MDSCs that could help in the development of new therapies for cancer and autoimmunity.

    • Filippo Veglia
    • Emilio Sanseviero
    • Dmitry I. Gabrilovich
    Review Article
  • This Review provides an overview of haem oxygenase 1 (HO-1) for immunologists, including its roles in iron metabolism and antioxidant defence, and the impact of HO-1 induction in specific immune cell populations. The authors highlight the therapeutic potential of HO-1 induction for treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

    • Nicole K. Campbell
    • Hannah K. Fitzgerald
    • Aisling Dunne
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Lloyd and Hewitt describe our contemporary understanding of the airway epithelial cell landscape. They highlight the new epithelial cell types that have been recently discovered and explain how epithelial cells interact with the immune and nervous systems to shape immunity in the airways.

    • Richard J. Hewitt
    • Clare M. Lloyd
    Review Article
  • This Review by Harschnitz and Studer explains how human pluripotent stem cell technology can be used to explore antiviral immunity in the central nervous system. Such technology could help us to identify new therapies for a range of central nervous system viral infections and to uncover the mechanisms behind the central nervous system complications associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

    • Oliver Harschnitz
    • Lorenz Studer
    Review Article
  • This Review, aimed at a broad scientific audience, provides an introductory guide to the history, development and immunological basis of vaccines, immunization and related issues to provide insight into the challenges facing immunologists who are designing the next generation of vaccines.

    • Andrew J. Pollard
    • Else M. Bijker
    Review Article
  • As the world races to develop vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, Dai and Gao highlight which viral targets are best to include in a vaccine and how this impacts the induced immune response and, ultimately, the safety and efficacy of a vaccine.

    • Lianpan Dai
    • George F. Gao
  • Metabolic pathways play a central role in determining the fate and function of immune cells, and cellular activation induces profound changes in their oxidation–reduction (redox) system. Here, Muri and Kopf examine the crosstalk between metabolic and redox pathways and discuss their role in the proliferation, survival and function in T cells, B cells and macrophages.

    • Jonathan Muri
    • Manfred Kopf
    Review Article
  • The structures of activated nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) in plants and animals reveal a common principle of NLR activation, but allow different modes of non-self recognition and the initiation of different immune signalling and cell death pathways.

    • Isabel M. L. Saur
    • Ralph Panstruga
    • Paul Schulze-Lefert
    Review Article
  • In this Perspective, Alon and colleagues discuss how insights into immune cell trafficking during pneumotropic influenza virus infections may inform our understanding of immune cell recruitment to the respiratory tract in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Moreover, they examine the emerging knowledge of vascular pathologies beyond the lung caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

    • Ronen Alon
    • Mike Sportiello
    • David J. Topham
  • Cell death recognition can result in a multitude of distinct effector responses. Here, the authors discuss a framework for determining the specific effector response to cell death that relies on its recognition, contextual environmental signals and the identity of the efferocyte.

    • Carla V. Rothlin
    • Thomas D. Hille
    • Sourav Ghosh
    Review Article
  • Glucocorticoid treatment is used to suppress the immune system in various disease settings. However, endogenous glucocorticoids are able to promote as well as inhibit different aspects of T cell immunity. Here, the authors discuss the many ways in which T cell responses are shaped by glucocorticoids.

    • Matthew D. Taves
    • Jonathan D. Ashwell
    Review Article