Review Articles

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  • This Review considers how the biophysical properties of a tissue are able to shape immune cell function through the process of mechanotransduction. There are multiple mechanotransduction pathways that operate in immune cells and the authors highlight these and the emerging field of mechanoimmunology.

    • Huixun Du
    • Juliet M. Bartleson
    • Manish J. Butte
    Review Article
  • There are many reasons why the development of a potent and durable vaccine to HIV-1 is exceptionally challenging, including the large genetic diversity of the virus and its complex mechanisms of immune evasion. In this Review, Haynes et al. discuss strategies for the induction of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies for HIV-1 and the steps that may be necessary for ultimate success.

    • Barton F. Haynes
    • Kevin Wiehe
    • George M. Shaw
    Review Article
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increasingly recognized as having ubiquitous roles in the immune system. This Review focuses on the progress made in the field in the past 5 years, including the roles of EVs in innate and adaptive immunity and their potential use in diagnosis and therapy.

    • Edit I. Buzas
    Review Article
  • Lorenzo Galluzzi and colleagues discuss the molecular mechanisms through which mitochondrial dysfunction elicits inflammatory reactions, the cellular pathways that are in place to control them and how the dysregulation of these systems contributes to pathology.

    • Saverio Marchi
    • Emma Guilbaud
    • Lorenzo Galluzzi
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Gorbunova and colleagues discuss the links between DNA damage, inflammation and ageing. They focus on the implications for premature ageing syndromes and multiple age-related diseases, and highlight potential therapeutic targets.

    • Yang Zhao
    • Matthew Simon
    • Vera Gorbunova
    Review Article
  • IL-17 cytokines drive biological responses that protect the host against many infections but can also contribute to host pathology in the context of infection and autoimmunity. Here, Kingston Mills highlights the different cellular sources of IL-17 and compares the pathological versus protective functions of these cytokines.

    • Kingston H. G. Mills
    Review Article
  • Myeloid cells contribute to the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment and can be responsible for resistance to cancer immunotherapy. Here, the authors describe the current therapies that aim to modulate the functional activities of myeloid cell populations, impacting their recruitment, survival and activity in the tumour microenvironment, acting at the level of cell surface receptors, signalling pathways, epigenetic machinery and metabolic regulators.

    • Sangeeta Goswami
    • Swetha Anandhan
    • Padmanee Sharma
    Review Article
  • The cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has pleiotropic functions beyond allergic diseases and T helper 2-type immune responses. Here, the authors highlight the roles of TSLP — beneficial or deleterious — in infectious disease, chronic inflammatory disease and cancer by acting on many different cell types.

    • Risa Ebina-Shibuya
    • Warren J. Leonard
    Review Article
  • This Review explains how natural killer (NK) cells promote immunity to tumours. The authors cover the therapeutic approaches that are being developed to mobilize NK cells in patients with cancer, including NK cell activators, checkpoint blockade, cellular therapies, and bispecific and trispecific NK cell activating antibodies.

    • Natalie K. Wolf
    • Djem U. Kissiov
    • David H. Raulet
    Review Article
  • Patients with autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus, have distinct gut microbiota compositions compared to healthy controls. This Review explores how the gut microbiota influence autoimmune responses in extra-intestinal autoimmune diseases and discusses potential preventative and therapeutic strategies targeted at the microbiota–immune interface.

    • Eiji Miyauchi
    • Chikako Shimokawa
    • Hiroshi Ohno
    Review Article
  • This Review explores the complex roles of immune cells in the onset and progression of multiple sclerosis, describing the influence of environmental and genetic factors on immune cell phenotype and function. The authors highlight that teasing out the precise roles of different immune cell subsets at different stages of the disease will be key to effective treatment strategies.

    • Kathrine E. Attfield
    • Lise Torp Jensen
    • Lars Fugger
    Review Article
  • This ‘guide to’ article provides an overview of the antigen processing and presentation pathways, which lead to the loading of antigenic peptides on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules for detection by T cells.

    • Novalia Pishesha
    • Thibault J. Harmand
    • Hidde L. Ploegh
    Review Article
  • Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have diverse phenotypes across different tissues and disease states. Recent insights into ILC2 biology raise new possibilities for the improved treatment of cancer and of metabolic, infectious and chronic inflammatory diseases.

    • Hergen Spits
    • Jenny Mjösberg
    Review Article
  • This Review discusses the immunomodulatory properties of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-γ (PI3Kγ) in health and in the context of various diseases, ranging from cardiovascular disease to auto-immunity and cancer, and discusses the therapeutic potential of PI3Kγ inhibitors, which have entered clinical trials for cancer.

    • Stephen M. Lanahan
    • Matthias P. Wymann
    • Carrie L. Lucas
    Review Article
  • To realize the full potential of genetic engineering of haematopoietic stem cells for a broad range of clinical indications, substantial immunological challenges must be overcome. These include innate and adaptive immune responses to gene-therapy reagents and adaptive immune responses to neoantigens expressed by genetically engineered cells.

    • Carsten T. Charlesworth
    • Ian Hsu
    • Hiromitsu Nakauchi
    Review Article
  • The authors of this Review discuss the current evidence suggesting that pathological immune activation contributes to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). They explain how immune mediators can contribute to pain signalling and abdominal pain, and highlight the potential for targeting immune pathways in IBS.

    • Javier Aguilera-Lizarraga
    • Hind Hussein
    • Guy E. Boeckxstaens
    Review Article
  • This Review from Tansey and colleagues explores how an ageing immune system, host genetics and exposure to various environmental stressors combine to promote the development of Parkinson disease.

    • Malú Gámez Tansey
    • Rebecca L. Wallings
    • Valerie Joers
    Review Article
  • Here, Malek and colleagues describe the multiple ways in which IL-2 biologics have been engineered to preferentially target regulatory T cells or effector T cells, memory T cells and natural killer cells to correct dysregulated or insufficient immune responses in the settings of autoimmunity or cancer.

    • Rosmely Hernandez
    • Janika Põder
    • Thomas R. Malek
    Review Article
  • This Review from Masters and colleagues highlights how damage to intracellular organelles is linked to activation of the innate immune system. The authors propose that a better appreciation of such organellar homeostasis could lead to the identification of novel innate immune pathways and have therapeutic implications.

    • Cassandra R. Harapas
    • Elina Idiiatullina
    • Seth L. Masters
    Review Article
  • Alt and colleagues review recent advances in our understanding of the mechanistic role of cohesin-mediated chromatin loop extrusion in V(D)J recombination and class-switch recombination at the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus.

    • Yu Zhang
    • Xuefei Zhang
    • Frederick W. Alt
    Review Article