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  • A paper in Cell describes a role for regulatory T cells in mediating the symptoms of opioid withdrawal through effects on neuronal synapses.

    • Kirsty Minton
    Research Highlight
  • In addition to their well-established role in haemostasis, platelets also have an active role in the immune response. Here the authors summarize the evidence linking platelet activation to immune dysregulation and organ damage in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, and discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting platelets.

    • Marc Scherlinger
    • Christophe Richez
    • Patrick Blanco
    Review Article
  • Galectins can modulate immune cells by binding to glycosylated proteins and lipids on the cell surface, or intracellularly via carbohydrate-dependent or carbohydrate-independent interactions. This Review explores the diverse ways in which galectins affect immunity and discusses the challenges in the field.

    • Fu-Tong Liu
    • Sean R. Stowell
    Review Article
  • The authors propose a new grouping of glomerulonephritis disorders based on their underlying immunopathogenesis, with a view to improving diagnosis, mechanistic understanding and treatment of these immune-mediated kidney diseases.

    • Hans-Joachim Anders
    • A. Richard Kitching
    • Paola Romagnani
    Review Article
  • This Review synthesizes our current mechanistic understanding of the cellular and molecular determinants of tissue-specific antifungal host defences derived from animal models of fungal disease, humans with fungal infection-manifesting inborn errors of immunity and patients treated with fungal infection-promoting, immune-targeted biologics.

    • Michail S. Lionakis
    • Rebecca A. Drummond
    • Tobias M. Hohl
    Review Article
  • A preprint by Beltra et al. describes a role for STAT5A in the development of an intermediate-exhausted ‘effector-like’ phenotype of exhausted T cells.

    • David Arcia-Anaya
    • Tim Elliott
    Journal Club
  • In breast cancer, an effective response to therapy with immune checkpoint blockade depends on T cell–eosinophil collaboration: CD4+ T cells produce IL-5 to mobilize eosinophils, which in turn help to activate antitumour CD8+ T cell responses.

    • Lucy Bird
    Research Highlight
  • The successful mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 contain polyethylene glycol (PEG) to stabilize the lipid nanoparticles. Recent data show that PEG-specific antibodies can be induced or boosted by mRNA vaccination. Further research is needed to study the potential links between PEG-specific antibodies, vaccine reactogenicity and enhanced clearance of other PEG-containing medicines.

    • Yi Ju
    • Juan Manuel Carreño
    • Stephen J. Kent
  • This Review discusses the evidence for pre-existing cross-reactive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2, which are mainly due to infections with common cold coronaviruses, and how such cross-reactivity affects adaptive immune responses. Furthermore, it explores cross-reactivity in the context of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and its implications for vaccine development.

    • Sam M. Murray
    • Azim M. Ansari
    • Ane Ogbe
  • In addition to antibody-mediated neutralization, Fc-dependent effector functions of antibodies directed to SARS-CoV-2 are emerging as an important factor in determining the outcome of infection. This Review highlights the current state of the field and discusses remaining uncertainties regarding Fc-dependent, non-neutralizing functions of antibodies.

    • Ali Zhang
    • Hannah D. Stacey
    • Matthew S. Miller
    Review Article
  • Single-cell analysis of the regenerative velvet skin covering reindeer antlers during periods of growth shows that interactions between fibroblasts and immune cells determine wound healing outcomes.

    • Kirsty Minton
    Research Highlight
  • This Review discusses recent applications of CRISPR screening to discover intracellular and intercellular regulators of immune cell function in infection, inflammation and cancer, with a focus on the advances of in vivo and single-cell CRISPR screens in immuno-oncology.

    • Hao Shi
    • John G. Doench
    • Hongbo Chi
    Review Article
  • The RNA polymerase III subunit TFIIIA transcribes 5S ribosomal RNA pseudogenes that activate RIG-I. Mutations affecting TFIIIA impair antiviral immune responses and are associated with herpes simplex encephalitis.

    • Yvonne Bordon
    Research Highlight
  • Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are present in the meninges and help to maintain normal neural function by preserving meningeal barrier homeostasis and integrity.

    • Lucy Bird
    Research Highlight