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  • This Review considers how the biophysical properties of a tissue are able to shape immune cell function through the process of mechanotransduction. There are multiple mechanotransduction pathways that operate in immune cells and the authors highlight these and the emerging field of mechanoimmunology.

    • Huixun Du
    • Juliet M. Bartleson
    • Manish J. Butte
    Review Article
  • There are many reasons why the development of a potent and durable vaccine to HIV-1 is exceptionally challenging, including the large genetic diversity of the virus and its complex mechanisms of immune evasion. In this Review, Haynes et al. discuss strategies for the induction of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies for HIV-1 and the steps that may be necessary for ultimate success.

    • Barton F. Haynes
    • Kevin Wiehe
    • George M. Shaw
    Review Article
  • Hybrid immunity occurs in those who have been both infected with and vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. But how well does such hybrid immunity protect against the virus and its emerging variants?

    • Rahul Suryawanshi
    • Melanie Ott
  • Here, the authors consider our emerging understanding of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. They focus on the complex interactions between innate immune, coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways that can lead to potentially life-threatening thrombosis following SARS-CoV-2 infection.

    • Edward M. Conway
    • Nigel Mackman
    • James H. Morrissey
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increasingly recognized as having ubiquitous roles in the immune system. This Review focuses on the progress made in the field in the past 5 years, including the roles of EVs in innate and adaptive immunity and their potential use in diagnosis and therapy.

    • Edit I. Buzas
    Review Article
  • In the time of the COVID-19 pandemic, anti-vaccine activism in the USA accelerated, amplified and formed an alliance with political groups and even extremists. An organized, well-funded and empowered anti-science movement now threatens to spill over and threaten all childhood immunizations in the USA and globally.

    • Peter J. Hotez
  • Established models of behavioural science can help to explain the suboptimal COVID-19 vaccine uptake even in countries with a plentiful supply, showing that increasing vaccination is not just about increasing knowledge and motivation, but also about increasing the opportunity for vaccination.

    • Susan Michie
  • Lorenzo Galluzzi and colleagues discuss the molecular mechanisms through which mitochondrial dysfunction elicits inflammatory reactions, the cellular pathways that are in place to control them and how the dysregulation of these systems contributes to pathology.

    • Saverio Marchi
    • Emma Guilbaud
    • Lorenzo Galluzzi
    Review Article
  • A preprint by Cheng et al. describes how differential expression of the X-chromosome-encoded epigenetic regulator UTX contributes to sex-based differences in natural killer cell frequency and function.

    • Ashley Reid Cahn
    • Adam M. Farkas
    Journal Club
  • Vitamin D has received much interest during the COVID-19 pandemic as a potential prophylactic or therapeutic agent — but do the available data support its use?

    • Adrian R. Martineau
    • Margherita T. Cantorna
  • IL-17 production by skin-resident γδ T cells is required for optimal HIF1α activation in damaged epithelium, leading to epithelial cell migration and re-epithelialization.

    • Kirsty Minton
    Research Highlight
  • The non-pharmaceutical interventions that were introduced to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 have also affected the transmission of respiratory syncytial virus, particularly its seasonality, with implications for the deployment of new monoclonal antibodies and vaccines.

    • Lucy G. Mosscrop
    • Thomas C. Williams
    • John S. Tregoning
  • In this Review, Gorbunova and colleagues discuss the links between DNA damage, inflammation and ageing. They focus on the implications for premature ageing syndromes and multiple age-related diseases, and highlight potential therapeutic targets.

    • Yang Zhao
    • Matthew Simon
    • Vera Gorbunova
    Review Article
  • Medullary thymic epithelial cells co-opt lineage-defining transcription factors to mimic numerous peripheral cell types and express their antigens against which maturing T cells can be tolerized.

    • Lucy Bird
    Research Highlight
  • IL-17 cytokines drive biological responses that protect the host against many infections but can also contribute to host pathology in the context of infection and autoimmunity. Here, Kingston Mills highlights the different cellular sources of IL-17 and compares the pathological versus protective functions of these cytokines.

    • Kingston H. G. Mills
    Review Article
  • In early 2022, staff from the NIAID at the NIH organized a workshop focusing on the innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2. In this Viewpoint article, some of the organizers and invited speakers share their thoughts on key outcomes of this meeting.

    • Michael S. Diamond
    • John D. Lambris
    • John S. Tsang