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  • Here, Raffatellu and co-workers discuss our growing understanding of how primary bile acids (which are cholesterol-derived molecules synthesized in the liver) and secondary bile acids (which are primary bile acids that have been microbially modified) shape immune responses in health and disease, with a particular focus on bile acids and intestinal immunity.

    • Michael H. Lee
    • Sean-Paul Nuccio
    • Manuela Raffatellu
    Review Article
  • Age-associated defects in dendritic cells can be corrected by hyperactivating adjuvants containing an oxidized phospholipid to induce effective antitumour responses in mice.

    • Lucy Bird
    Research Highlight
  • Two papers in Nature Immunology provide a comprehensive atlas of human natural killer cells in health and in different types of cancer.

    • Alexandra Flemming
    Research Highlight
  • In this Comment article, organizers of the International School of Immunotherapy (Immunoschool) reflect on the experience gained from the past ten years in using online technologies for global and inclusive immunology education.

    • Nicolas Vabret
    • Jaime Mateus-Tique
    • Miriam Merad
  • This Review by Arnold and Munitz discusses the diverse roles of eosinophils in the settings of tissue homeostasis, infection, allergy and cancer. The authors explain the molecular mechanisms that enable eosinophils to adapt to diverse tissue types and conditions, and they consider the therapeutic potential of eosinophil-depleting drugs in the clinic.

    • Isabelle C. Arnold
    • Ariel Munitz
    Review Article
  • In this Viewpoint, Nature Reviews Immunology invites eight experts in the field to share their thoughts on the key questions and challenges in MDSC research.

    • Leila Akkari
    • Ido Amit
    • Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg
  • A preprint by Ngo et al. reports a new mouse model for the constitutive depletion of pDCs, showing that pDCs are dispensable for antiviral immunity.

    • Ester Gea-Mallorquí
    • Sarah Rowland-Jones
    Journal Club
  • An adoptive cellular therapy based on γδ T cells, which were engineered to secrete a tumour-targeting opsonin as well as an IL-15 superagonist, controlled tumour growth in a mouse model of patient-derived osteosarcoma.

    • Alexandra Flemming
    Research Highlight
  • A study by Nakayama et al. shows that heart failure causes epigenetic changes in haematopoietic stem cells that predispose to further heart disease and comorbidity.

    • Alexandra Flemming
    Research Highlight
  • Malaria remains a devastating human disease. Although malaria vaccines are available, their limited efficacy and protective duration are problematic. In this Review, the authors discuss how immunoregulatory networks that likely develop to prevent disease during malaria may also impede prevention and control measures.

    • Michelle J. Boyle
    • Christian R. Engwerda
    • Prasanna Jagannathan
    Review Article
  • CAR T cell therapy alleviates type 2 airway inflammation in mouse models of asthma.

    • Yvonne Bordon
    Research Highlight
  • Recent clinical studies show that chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, best known for treating B cell malignancies, can be used to treat patients with various B cell-driven autoimmune diseases. Here, the authors update us with the progress so far and the considerations for further improving and extending their therapeutic application.

    • James B. Chung
    • Jennifer N. Brudno
    • James N. Kochenderfer
    Review Article
  • This Review provides a guide to the memory cells of the adaptive immune system, comprising memory T cells, memory B cells and plasma cells; it covers their formation, function, heterogeneity, localization, regulation and maintenance, and the crucial technological advances that allowed their discovery.

    • Nora Lam
    • YoonSeung Lee
    • Donna L. Farber
    Review Article
  • CD8+ T cells become exhausted when exposed to the mechanical forces of stiff solid tumours, owing to signalling through the transcription factor OSR2.

    • Lucy Bird
    Research Highlight