Volume 14 Issue 4, April 2017

Volume 14 Issue 4

Cover image supplied by Carolina Tropini, Sonnenburg Group, Stanford University, USA, who is funded by a James S. McDonnell fellowship. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of mouse colon colonized with gnotobiotic microbiota. Tissue was stained by DAPI and the mucus labelled with UEA-1 (Ulex europaeus agglutinin I), bacteria were labelled with fluorescent DNA probes.

Research Highlights

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Chronic inflammation is a well-known risk factor for developing colitis-associated colorectal cancer. A new study reports that aberrant activation of innate immune responses increases susceptibility to colitis and colorectal cancer. These findings identify an epithelial cell-intrinsic mechanism by which the innate immune system promotes tumorigenesis through the activation of PI3K–mTOR signalling.

    • Tianyan Gao
    •  & B. Mark Evers
  • News & Views |

    New work has provided insight into the molecular pathways that underlie the liver disease that is associated with α1-antitrypsin deficiency, and has identified a novel approach to cell-based therapy.

    • S. Tamir Rashid
    •  & David A. Lomas

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Liver transplantation is the best option for patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, the authors summarize the outcomes of liver transplantation, novel surgical techniques to increase the pool of donor livers for transplantation and the limitations of current priority policies.

    • Gonzalo Sapisochin
    •  & Jordi Bruix
  • Review Article |

    Clonal evolution begins before the development of neoplasia in IBD, accelerated by repeated cycles of epithelial wounding and repair. Here, the authors summarize the biological drivers of mutant clone selection in IBD and discuss how an evolutionary perspective can improve cancer surveillance programmes and dysplasia management.

    • Chang-Ho R. Choi
    • , Ibrahim Al Bakir
    • , Ailsa L. Hart
    •  & Trevor A. Graham

    Collection:

  • Review Article |

    Helicobacter pylori remains an important human pathogen with links to both malignant (gastric cancer) and non-malignant diseases (such as peptic ulcer). Here, the authors discuss issues related to implementation of population screening and eradication of H. pylori infection.

    • Anthony O'Connor
    • , Colm A. O'Morain
    •  & Alexander C. Ford
  • Review Article |

    Incidence of food allergy has increased considerably in the past two decades, especially in developed countries. Here, Nowak-Wegrzyn and colleagues discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and gastrointestinal manifestations of food allergy, and examine current and future treatment approaches.

    • Anna Nowak-Wegrzyn
    • , Hania Szajewska
    •  & Gideon Lack