Volume 14 Issue 12, December 2017

Volume 14 Issue 12

Cover image supplied by Carolina Tropini, Sonnenburg Group, Stanford University, USA, who is funded by a James S. McDonnell fellowship. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of mouse colon colonized with gnotobiotic microbiota. Tissue was stained by DAPI and the mucus labelled with UEA-1 (Ulex europaeus agglutinin I), bacteria were labelled with fluorescent DNA probes.

Research Highlights

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Although Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer, bacterial communities that reside in the stomach are mostly unacknowledged. A new study shows that some gastric bacterial communities have emigrated from our mouth, prefer certain neighbours and prefer certain environments. By understanding the interactions of these bacteria, we hope to understand the environment most conducive to gastric cancer carcinogenesis.

    • Manish A. Shah
  • News & Views |

    Ileocaecal resection has traditionally been reserved for the treatment of biologic-refractory inflammatory, fibrostenotic or fistulizing Crohn's disease of the terminal ileum. Now, for the first time, this surgical approach has been investigated as an initial treatment for steroid or immunomodulator-refractory Crohn's ileitis, in comparison with anti-TNF therapy.

    • Bo Shen
  • News & Views |

    Childhood malnutrition is a global health issue influenced by poorly understood microbial interactions. A new model of co-infection in mice now sheds light on the complex interplay between pathogens, the host and the resident gut microbiota during malnutrition.

    • Kelsey E. Huus
    •  & B. Brett Finlay

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used for gastric acid suppression in a number of gastric-acid-related diseases, including GERD. However, in recent years, increasing evidence of adverse events has been reported, raising concerns with clinicians and patients. This Review provides an update on the complications and risks of PPI use.

    • Peter Malfertheiner
    • , Arne Kandulski
    •  & Marino Venerito
  • Review Article |

    Following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for the treatment of haematopoietic diseases, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of the gastrointestinal tract is a common complication that presents distinct diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In this Review, the authors tailor their discussion of the diagnosis, staging and clinical management of gastrointestinal acute GVHD for practising gastroenterologists.

    • Steven Naymagon
    • , Leonard Naymagon
    • , Serre-Yu Wong
    • , Huaibin Mabel Ko
    • , Anne Renteria
    • , John Levine
    • , Jean-Frederic Colombel
    •  & James Ferrara

Consensus Statement

  • Consensus Statement | | open

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is an important cause of impaired development and stunting in children in the developing world. In this Consensus Statement, the authors assess the potential of optical biopsy technologies to facilitate the study and diagnosis of this global burden.

    • Alex J. Thompson
    • , Michael Hughes
    • , Salzitsa Anastasova
    • , Laurie S. Conklin
    • , Tudor Thomas
    • , Cadman Leggett
    • , William A. Faubion
    • , Thomas J. Miller
    • , Peter Delaney
    • , François Lacombe
    • , Sacha Loiseau
    • , Alexander Meining
    • , Rebecca Richards-Kortum
    • , Guillermo J. Tearney
    • , Paul Kelly
    •  & Guang-Zhong Yang

Perspectives

    Innovation

  • Innovation |

    IBD is a complex disease characterized by multiple interacting pathogenic components. In this Perspectives, the authors advocate studying the 'IBD interactome' to build a molecular network of IBD, and discuss new concepts and tools to implement an unbiased systems approach that could facilitate development of novel therapies.

    • Heitor S. P. de Souza
    • , Claudio Fiocchi
    •  & Dimitrios Iliopoulos

Erratum