Volume 13 Issue 12, December 2016

Volume 13 Issue 12

Cover image supplied by S. Ferreira-Gonzalez and S.J. Forbes, MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Edinburgh, UK, who are funded by MRC and Principal’s Career Development Edinburgh University grants. Immunofluorescence image of ductular reaction in the liver. Tissue was stained to show marker of biliary differentiation keratin 19 (rat anti-troma III) and red fluorescent protein (rabbit anti-RFP). Nuclei were stained by DAPI.

Research Highlights

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Zinc is essential for biological processes in both mammalian hosts and their microbial symbionts. Sequestration of zinc is a strategy used by mammals to protect against bacterial pathogens. A new study has demonstrated that zinc supplementation increased susceptibility and worsened disease in a mouse model of Clostridium difficile infection.

    • Anna M. Seekatz
    •  & Vincent B. Young
  • News & Views |

    Long-standing IBD is associated with an increased risk of neoplasia. Chromoendoscopy was proven to be the most sensitive modality for dysplasia detection in several clinical trials, but a new study has now shown it to be an effective screening strategy in a routine clinical setting, further warranting its implementation into real-world practice.

    • Raja Atreya
    •  & Markus F. Neurath

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Evidence suggests that food composition affects colonic health and colon cancer risk via its effects on gut microbiota metabolism. In this Review, O'Keefe discusses the mechanisms behind microbial metabolite effects, which could be modified by diet to prevent colorectal cancer in western societies.

    • Stephen J. D. O'Keefe
  • Review Article |

    In this article, the authors review the evidence supporting preoperative optimization of patients undergoing surgery for Crohn's disease, including strategies that potentially improve surgical outcomes and reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality. Patient-related and operation-related factors are discussed.

    • Kamal V. Patel
    • , Amir A. Darakhshan
    • , Nyree Griffin
    • , Andrew B. Williams
    • , Jeremy D. Sanderson
    •  & Peter M. Irving
  • Review Article |

    Endoscopy is vital for detection and treatment of early oesophageal cancer. Here, Ragunath and Mannath discuss current and emerging imaging technologies that might improve detection of oesophageal lesions. Endotherapy techniques, including ablation therapy, endoscopic resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection, are also explored.

    • Jayan Mannath
    •  & Krish Ragunath

Perspectives

    Opinion

  • Opinion |

    Rhythmic electrical slow waves generate the contractions fundamental to gastrointestinal motility and certain disorders. In this Perspective, Sanders and colleagues discuss the application of slow-wave extracellular recording techniques to gastrointestinal organs and how mechanical artefacts might contaminate these recordings and confound interpretation.

    • Kenton M. Sanders
    • , Sean M. Ward
    •  & Grant W. Hennig