Volume 12 Issue 9, September 2015

Volume 12 Issue 9

Cover image supplied by H. Plovier and P. D. Cani, WELBIO (Walloon Excellence in Life sciences and BIOtechnology), Louvain Drug Research Institue, Metabolism and Nutrition research group, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium. Founded by an ERC Starting Grant 336452-ENIGMO.Immunofluorescence image of enteroendocrine L cells in the epithelium and gut bacteria in the luminal content of the mouse proximal colon. Tissue was stained to show L cells (mouse anti-GLP1) and intermediary filaments of the colonic epithelium (rabbit anti-cytokeratin 8). Nuclei were stained by Hoechst 33342. Gut microbes present in the colonic content can be seen thanks to aspecific staining.

Research Highlights

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy induced by gluten. Generation of gluten-specific CD4+ T cells is necessary but not sufficient to induce overt disease. Now, epithelial stress has been proposed as a distinct factor that synergizes with the anti-gluten adaptive immune response to induce intraepithelial lymphocyte activation and tissue damage.

    • Nadine Cerf-Bensussan
    •  & Bertrand Meresse
  • News & Views |

    Measurements of liver copper content are considered the gold standard for diagnosis of Wilson disease. New evidence shows that a reduction of the diagnostic threshold indicative for Wilson disease potentially improves diagnostic accuracy.

    • Wolfgang Stremmel
    •  & Uta Merle

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Emerging evidence indicates that the gut microbiota might have a role in the development of coeliac disease. In this Review, Verdu and colleagues describe how alterations in the composition and function of the gut microbiota might influence coeliac disease pathogenesis, presenting the latest data from human and experimental studies.

    • Elena F. Verdu
    • , Heather J. Galipeau
    •  & Bana Jabri
  • Review Article |

    Many autoimmune diseases are known to occur alongside coeliac disease and, in some instances, patients see improvements in both if coeliac disease is diagnosed and treated. Shared genetic traits have been identified between coeliac disease and many of these forms of autoimmunity. In this Review, an overview is presented of the genetic and immunological features of coeliac disease, its overlap with other autoimmune diseases and implications for screening strategies.

    • Knut E. A. Lundin
    •  & Cisca Wijmenga
  • Review Article |

    Individuals are increasingly self-reporting gluten sensitivity and placing themselves on a gluten-free diet without diagnosis of coeliac disease or IgE-mediated allergy. This new clinical entity has been termed noncoeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). In this Review, the authors provide an overview of NCGS, including immunopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and management, as well as the controversies associated with this condition.

    • Imran Aziz
    • , Marios Hadjivassiliou
    •  & David S. Sanders
  • Review Article |

    Gluten-related disorders are increasingly being diagnosed in children. In this Review, Vriezinga and colleagues provide an overview of the most common gluten-related disorders in children: coeliac disease, wheat allergy and noncoeliac gluten sensitivity. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of each condition are described.

    • Sabine L. Vriezinga
    • , Joachim J. Schweizer
    • , Frits Koning
    •  & M. Luisa Mearin
  • Review Article |

    The landscape of treatment for IBD changed dramatically with the introduction of biologic agents, of which several are now in use for this condition. Here, the authors provide practical insights into the use of biologic agents in IBD, discussing issues such as comparative effectiveness, safety, immunogenicity, cost and patient preference.

    • Silvio Danese
    • , Lucine Vuitton
    •  & Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet

Focus

  • Focus |

    Coeliac disease & gluten sensitivity

    Awareness and understanding of gluten-related disorders (including coeliac disease and noncoeliac gluten sensitivity) has improved over the past few decades, with insights into the immunopathogenesis and genetics, as well as in serology, diagnosis, clinical features and management. These specially commissioned articles, written by key opinion leaders in the field, highlight new understanding of coeliac disease and gluten sensitivity, including pathogenesis, overlap with other autoimmune diseases, gluten-related disorders in childhood, extraintestinal manifestations, refractory disease, practical insights into a gluten-free diet and the debate around noncoeliac gluten sensitivity.