Volume 12 Issue 5, May 2015

Volume 12 Issue 5

Cover image supplied by H. Plovier and P. D. Cani, WELBIO (Walloon Excellence in Life sciences and BIOtechnology), Louvain Drug Research Institue, Metabolism and Nutrition research group, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium. Founded by an ERC Starting Grant 336452-ENIGMO.Immunofluorescence image of enteroendocrine L cells in the epithelium and gut bacteria in the luminal content of the mouse proximal colon. Tissue was stained to show L cells (mouse anti-GLP1) and intermediary filaments of the colonic epithelium (rabbit anti-cytokeratin 8). Nuclei were stained by Hoechst 33342. Gut microbes present in the colonic content can be seen thanks to aspecific staining.

Research Highlights

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    This commentary outlines our expanding understanding of resident bacterial compartmentalization along the longitudinal and vertical intestinal axes and suggests optimal approaches to sampling the microbiota. Although readily available and noninvasive, faecal microbiota are not fully representative of mucosally associated bacterial communities, which might uniquely interact with epithelial and immune cells.

    • R. Balfour Sartor

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    This Review highlightsthe progress that is being made in understanding the pathophysiology, prevalence and potential complications of both oropharyngeal dysphagia and oesophageal dysphagia, particularly in association with impaired physiology. The authors discuss the advances that are paving the way for a transdisciplinary field of deglutology.

    • Pere Clavé
    •  & Reza Shaker
  • Review Article |

    A novel family of innate lymphocytes called innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have been found to accumulate in mucosal tissue and produce cytokines relevant to IBD. This Review describes the subsets of ILCs, how they are involved in IBD pathogenesis and ways in which they reveal new therapeutic targets for IBD treatment.

    • Rimma Goldberg
    • , Natalie Prescott
    • , Graham M. Lord
    • , Thomas T. MacDonald
    •  & Nick Powell
  • Review Article |

    Interferon-free therapies have widely increased the treatment options for patients with chronic hepatitis C, especially individuals who were deemed 'difficult-to-treat', including those with advanced cirrhosis, end stage renal failure or undergoing liver transplantation. In this Review, Peter Ferenci discusses the best therapeutic options for these 'difficult-to-treat' patients in light of new and on-going trials in this field.

    • Peter Ferenci
  • Review Article |

    Congenital diarrhoeal disorders (CDDs) represent an evolving web of rare chronic enteropathies, with a typical onset early in life. The number of well-characterized disorders attributed to CDDs has gradually increased over the past few years and this Review highlights new CDD entities and advances understanding of functionally related genes that are opening new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives.

    • Roberto Berni Canani
    • , Giuseppe Castaldo
    • , Rosa Bacchetta
    • , Martín G. Martín
    •  & Olivier Goulet

Perspectives

    Opinion

  • Opinion |

    As understanding of the gut microbiota advances, the focus has shifted to ways to modulate the microbiota to improve health. One such strategy is the use of prebiotics. Here, Bindels and colleagues challenge the current definition of prebiotics, proposing revisions to the concept in an effort to strengthen the relevance of prebiotics as valuable therapeutic approaches.

    • Laure B. Bindels
    • , Nathalie M. Delzenne
    • , Patrice D. Cani
    •  & Jens Walter