Volume 12 Issue 11, November 2015

Volume 12 Issue 11

Cover image supplied by H. Plovier and P. D. Cani, WELBIO (Walloon Excellence in Life sciences and BIOtechnology), Louvain Drug Research Institue, Metabolism and Nutrition research group, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium. Founded by an ERC Starting Grant 336452-ENIGMO.Immunofluorescence image of enteroendocrine L cells in the epithelium and gut bacteria in the luminal content of the mouse proximal colon. Tissue was stained to show L cells (mouse anti-GLP1) and intermediary filaments of the colonic epithelium (rabbit anti-cytokeratin 8). Nuclei were stained by Hoechst 33342. Gut microbes present in the colonic content can be seen thanks to aspecific staining.

Research Highlights

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Bipotential hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are recognized as making modest contributions to hepatocyte regeneration, though never credited with major liver repopulation. A new study in mice demonstrates HPCs can make a massive contribution to hepatocyte replacement, suggesting HPCs have the potential to be an effective cell therapy for liver failure.

    • Malcolm R. Alison
    •  & Wey-Ran Lin
  • News & Views |

    Despite advances in hepatitis C treatment, substantial clinical hurdles remain to achieve universal cure and global control of infection. Saeed et al. identified SEC14L2 as a host factor permitting replication of clinical HCV isolates in cell culture, providing a novel system to model infection of patient-derived viruses.

    • Che C. Colpitts
    •  & Thomas F. Baumert
  • News & Views |

    Despite some advances in our understanding of the molecular characteristics of pancreatic cancer, much more progress is needed. In a new study, RNA profiling of pancreatic cancers was used to identify gene signatures of tumour cells and stromal cells to help predict patient outcomes.

    • Michael Ayars
    •  & Michael Goggins

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    With a growing population of children developing NAFLD, our understanding of the similarities and differences between paediatric, adolescent and adult NAFLD is getting ever more important. In this Review, Mencin, Loomba and Lavine outline the clinically relevant differences in epidemiology, pathology, pathophysiology and treatment of paediatric NAFLD and discuss the transition of care into adulthood.

    • Ali A. Mencin
    • , Rohit Loomba
    •  & Joel E. Lavine
  • Review Article |

    Diverticular disease is a common condition and can have acute or chronic as well as uncomplicated or complicated disease courses. Here, an overview of the management of the condition is provided, describing classification, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment for all disease types. How to manage chronic complications and diverticular bleeding is also discussed.

    • Roland H. Pfützer
    •  & Wolfgang Kruis
  • Review Article |

    Liver transplantation outcomes have improved substantially over the years, but patients still have to deal with a number of consequences and risks that might follow the procedure. Optimal screening and management of recurrent disease or associated pathologies, such as metabolic, renal, cardiac disease and cancer, are essential to provide the best possible care for transplant recipients.

    • Kymberly D. Watt
  • Review Article |

    The concept that the nervous system can adapt to gastrointestinal disorders is a new concept. In this Review the authors discuss neural plasticity in pancreatic diseases such as pancreatitis and cancer. Given the translational importance of neuropathic changes in pancreatic disorders the authors look at the available mouse models we have to study the phenomenon and highlight areas of research that still need investigation.

    • Ihsan Ekin Demir
    • , Helmut Friess
    •  & Güralp O. Ceyhan

Perspectives

    Opinion

  • Opinion |

    Upper gastrointestinal cancer is often missed during examinations and survival outcomes are still poor among patients in the Western world. As discussed in this Perspectives, following the Japanese example, an improved gastroscopy technique, advanced training for endoscopists and optimized screening procedures for risk stratification will be necessary to elicit a change in clinical practice and improve diagnosis and treatment.

    • Andrew M. Veitch
    • , Noriya Uedo
    • , Kenshi Yao
    •  & James E. East