Volume 12 Issue 10, October 2015

Volume 12 Issue 10

Cover image supplied by H. Plovier and P. D. Cani, WELBIO (Walloon Excellence in Life sciences and BIOtechnology), Louvain Drug Research Institue, Metabolism and Nutrition research group, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium. Founded by an ERC Starting Grant 336452-ENIGMO.Immunofluorescence image of enteroendocrine L cells in the epithelium and gut bacteria in the luminal content of the mouse proximal colon. Tissue was stained to show L cells (mouse anti-GLP1) and intermediary filaments of the colonic epithelium (rabbit anti-cytokeratin 8). Nuclei were stained by Hoechst 33342. Gut microbes present in the colonic content can be seen thanks to aspecific staining.

Editorial

Research Highlights

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Modulation of the gut microbiota is one of the promising tools to tackle obesity. Chang and colleagues have recently shown that an extract of the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, a traditional remedy in Asia, can reduce obesity in mice by modulating the gut microbiota, thereby exerting a prebiotic effect.

    • Nathalie M. Delzenne
    •  & Laure B. Bindels
  • News & Views |

    Early detection of colorectal lesions is the cornerstone of cancer prevention. Intravenous administration of a novel fluorescent peptide probe now enables the screening of the whole colorectal area using near-infrared fluorescence colonoscopy, an approach that was documented as safe, well-tolerated and specific in its detection of colorectal polyps.

    • Yanqing Li
  • News & Views |

    A global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis has been developed. Topics discussed include whether dyspepsia caused by H. pylori infection is separate from functional dyspepsia or not, the evaluation method for H. pylori-induced gastritis, eradication therapy for H. pylori gastritis to prevent gastric carcinogenesis and management after H. pylori eradication.

    • Hidekazu Suzuki
    •  & Hideki Mori
  • News & Views |

    HBV persists by depositing covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) into the nucleus of infected host cells. HBV X protein (HBx) is a crucial determinant for regulating HBV activity, but the molecular details have not been fully understood. A new role for HBx in regulating cccDNA transcription has now been identified.

    • Ulrike Protzer
  • News & Views |

    Liver transplantations for patients who are co-infected with HIV and HCV have always posed a challenge and still do, according to the results of a new study. This article discusses the factors that contribute to an increased risk of poor transplantation outcomes and how new treatment options might affect patient survival.

    • Didier Samuel
    •  & Jean-Charles Duclos-Vallée

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Coeliac disease is common, but remains under-diagnosed, partly because it can present with extraintestinal symptoms that do not immediately enable an accurate diagnosis of the underlying disease. In this Review, Leffler and colleagues discuss the most common extraintestinal manifestations, including dermatitis herpetiformis, gluten ataxia, anaemia, osteoporosis and others, to raise additional awareness among clinicians.

    • Daniel A. Leffler
    • , Peter H. R. Green
    •  & Alessio Fasano
  • Review Article |

    A small subset of patients with coeliac disease do not respond to therapy with a gluten-free diet. These individuals are considered to have refractory coeliac disease (RCD), of which there are two known subtypes. In this Review, the authors provide an overview of RCD discussing the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of this condition.

    • Tom van Gils
    • , Petula Nijeboer
    • , Roy L. van Wanrooij
    • , Gerd Bouma
    •  & Chris J. J. Mulder
  • Review Article |

    A gluten-free diet is the mainstay of treatment for patients with coeliac disease, and is still the only treatment available. In this Review, the authors provide practical insights into implementation of a gluten-free diet as a guide for clinicians, including challenges for patients, considerations for special populations, adherence and follow-up.

    • Jacalyn A. See
    • , Katri Kaukinen
    • , Govind K. Makharia
    • , Peter R. Gibson
    •  & Joseph A. Murray
  • Review Article |

    IBS is the most common brain–gut disorder and a major cause of chronic abdominal pain. Here, Mayer and colleagues describe the key components of the gut–brain–microbiota axis in IBS and present a systems-based view of how these components interact to integrate the central, peripheral and behavioural IBS-related alterations.

    • Emeran A. Mayer
    • , Jennifer S. Labus
    • , Kirsten Tillisch
    • , Steven W. Cole
    •  & Pierre Baldi

Correction