Reviews & Analysis

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  • Intestinal immune cell trafficking contributes to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). This Review discusses the underlying immune cell trafficking mechanisms along the gut–liver, gut–joint and gut–brain axes and provides an overview of their implications for treatment options in IMIDs.

    • Sebastian Zundler
    • Claudia Günther
    • Markus F. Neurath
    Review Article
  • Experimental and clinical evidence supports a role of metabolic perturbation in the development of gut inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This Review discusses the role of diet and metabolic inflammation in IBD, outlining key concepts and highlighting the links between metabolism and inflammation in IBD.

    • Timon E. Adolph
    • Moritz Meyer
    • Herbert Tilg
    Review Article
  • Here, the authors provide an overview of benign liver tumours (hepatic haemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma), including pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Insights into how molecular physiology could inform clinical practice are also highlighted.

    • Jean-Charles Nault
    • Valérie Paradis
    • Jessica Zucman-Rossi
    Review Article
  • In this Viewpoint, members of the Association of Black Gastroenterologists and Hepatologists discuss inclusivity and equity in academic medicine and give advice to Black students interested in a career in science or medicine.

    • Joan A. Culpepper-Morgan
    • Alexandra Guillaume
    • Renee Williams
  • Microbiota profiling using stool samples is limited in its ability to represent intestinal microbial dynamics. CRISPR-engineered bacteria can be used to acquire cellular RNAs and create a gene expression ‘memory’ during gastrointestinal transit, with the potential to capture microbial transcriptomic changes in the gastrointestinal tract without invasive sampling.

    • Alexander Crits-Christoph
    • Jotham Suez
    News & Views
  • Metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a chronic liver disease typically associated with obesity. This Review discusses the epidemiology and physiology of individuals of normal weight with MAFLD and provides insights into their metabolic health and metabolic adaptation.

    • Mohammed Eslam
    • Hashem B. El-Serag
    • Jacob George
    Review Article
  • Owing to its simplicity, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis is one of the most widely used mouse models of colitis. However, the severity of inflammation varies from one experiment to another. In a new study, Forster and colleagues have provided new insights into the DSS model by revealing specific microbial taxa that underlie disease variability.

    • Nicolas Benech
    • Harry Sokol
    News & Views
  • Surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most lethal solid cancers globally, is insensitive for the detection of early-stage tumours. In this Review, the authors discuss HCC biomarkers that can improve early diagnosis, therapy monitoring and prediction of therapy response.

    • Philip Johnson
    • Qing Zhou
    • Y. M. Dennis Lo
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Souza and Spechler describe the mechanisms, pathophysiology and cells of origin of Barrett oesophagus, a precursor of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, and discuss the clinical implications.

    • Rhonda F. Souza
    • Stuart J. Spechler
    Review Article
  • This Review covers the discovery of Akkermansia muciniphila and its association with health and disease, including metabolic diseases. Insights into underlying mechanisms for how A. muciniphila improves health are given as are comparisons with other next-generation beneficial microorganisms.

    • Patrice D. Cani
    • Clara Depommier
    • Willem M. de Vos
    Review Article
  • The history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a role model for successful basic, translational and clinical research. In this Perspective, the authors chart a timeline of breakthroughs in hepatitis C research, from discovery to cure.

    • Michael P. Manns
    • Benjamin Maasoumy
  • New data demonstrate racial and ethnic disparities in access to prescription medications in persons with chronic liver disease in the USA. Here, we discuss potential health equity solutions that address structural and social determinants of health to mitigate liver health inequities in access to liver disease pharmacotherapies.

    • Ani Kardashian
    • Lauren D. Nephew
    News & Views
  • Diet is part of the multidisciplinary management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This Review outlines a step-based approach to the dietary management of IBD, outlining the role of dietary therapy with practical insights for dietitians and clinicians.

    • Jessica A. Fitzpatrick
    • Sarah L. Melton
    • Emma P. Halmos
    Review Article
  • Polycystic liver diseases are genetic disorders that cause hepatic cystogenesis, which can coincide with cyst development in the kidney, with women being more affected than men. This Review discusses the genetics and underlying mechanisms and provides up-to-date therapeutic insights.

    • Paula Olaizola
    • Pedro M. Rodrigues
    • Jesus M. Banales
    Review Article
  • Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and screening is useful for early diagnosis. This Review outlines currently available CRC screening options worldwide (including colonoscopy and stool-based tests). Key features of each modality and new screening tests under development are described.

    • Aasma Shaukat
    • Theodore R. Levin
    Review Article
  • In this Review, O’Toole and colleagues discuss the composition and function of the gut microbiome as it relates to ageing and ‘unhealthy’ ageing as well as the potential for microbiome-directed interventions to encourage ‘healthy’ ageing.

    • Tarini Shankar Ghosh
    • Fergus Shanahan
    • Paul W. O’Toole
    Review Article
  • Clostridioides difficile infection has a notable health and economic burden worldwide. In this Review, the authors provide insights into the physiology of C. difficile and how it survives and has adapted to the gut environment, including insights into host–microorganism and microorganism–microorganism relationships.

    • Matthew K. Schnizlein
    • Vincent B. Young
    Review Article
  • Attaining mucosal healing without immunosuppression is an attractive option for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This Review describes the mechanisms of mucosal healing and how they might be altered in IBD and discusses potential therapeutic approaches to promote mucosal healing and regeneration.

    • Eduardo J. Villablanca
    • Katja Selin
    • Charlotte R. H. Hedin
    Review Article