Reviews & Analysis

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  • Diet is part of the multidisciplinary management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This Review outlines a step-based approach to the dietary management of IBD, outlining the role of dietary therapy with practical insights for dietitians and clinicians.

    • Jessica A. Fitzpatrick
    • Sarah L. Melton
    • Emma P. Halmos
    Review Article
  • Polycystic liver diseases are genetic disorders that cause hepatic cystogenesis, which can coincide with cyst development in the kidney, with women being more affected than men. This Review discusses the genetics and underlying mechanisms and provides up-to-date therapeutic insights.

    • Paula Olaizola
    • Pedro M. Rodrigues
    • Jesus M. Banales
    Review Article
  • Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and screening is useful for early diagnosis. This Review outlines currently available CRC screening options worldwide (including colonoscopy and stool-based tests). Key features of each modality and new screening tests under development are described.

    • Aasma Shaukat
    • Theodore R. Levin
    Review Article
  • In this Review, O’Toole and colleagues discuss the composition and function of the gut microbiome as it relates to ageing and ‘unhealthy’ ageing as well as the potential for microbiome-directed interventions to encourage ‘healthy’ ageing.

    • Tarini Shankar Ghosh
    • Fergus Shanahan
    • Paul W. O’Toole
    Review Article
  • Clostridioides difficile infection has a notable health and economic burden worldwide. In this Review, the authors provide insights into the physiology of C. difficile and how it survives and has adapted to the gut environment, including insights into host–microorganism and microorganism–microorganism relationships.

    • Matthew K. Schnizlein
    • Vincent B. Young
    Review Article
  • Attaining mucosal healing without immunosuppression is an attractive option for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This Review describes the mechanisms of mucosal healing and how they might be altered in IBD and discusses potential therapeutic approaches to promote mucosal healing and regeneration.

    • Eduardo J. Villablanca
    • Katja Selin
    • Charlotte R. H. Hedin
    Review Article
  • Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious gastrointestinal disease affecting premature infants and causing substantial morbidity and mortality. This Review highlights key advances in the understanding of how NEC develops, discusses preclinical developments in potential therapies and provides a future outlook for the field.

    • David J. Hackam
    • Chhinder P. Sodhi
    Review Article
  • Multiomics advance our understanding of disease progression and can facilitate drug discovery. In this Perspective, current knowledge and applications of omics platforms in inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis and in identifying risk factors are discussed.

    • Manasi Agrawal
    • Kristine H. Allin
    • Tine Jess
  • The liver microenvironment has a dynamic complexity that has not yet been adequately described. A new omics study sheds light on the hepatic parenchymal and immune cell heterogeneity by focusing on the spatial distribution of myeloid cells and macrophages in homeostasis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    • Adrien Guillot
    • Frank Tacke
    News & Views
  • In this Review, the authors describe how the chronic inflammatory microenvironment in the gastric mucosal epithelia during Helicobacter pylori infection can stimulate intracellular signalling pathways that lead to the development of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    • Yana Zavros
    • Juanita L. Merchant
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Andersen and colleagues discuss exogenous and endogenous factors responsible for mutational signatures in hepatobiliary cancers such as hepatocellular carcinoma and biliary tract cancers. In addition, they explore the role of mutational signatures in hepatobiliary tumorigenesis.

    • Ekaterina Zhuravleva
    • Colm J. O’Rourke
    • Jesper B. Andersen
    Review Article
  • Intestinal tissue engineering offers a potential therapeutic option for short bowel syndrome. This Review examines the progress in intestinal tissue engineering, discusses the components required for engineered intestinal grafts, preclinical progress and efforts towards clinical translation, including challenges to overcome.

    • Lucinda Tullie
    • Brendan C. Jones
    • Vivian S. W. Li
    Review Article
  • Dysbiotic microbiome signatures are linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus and inflammatory bowel disease activity, relapse risk and treatment response. Here, Metwaly and colleagues review these signatures and discuss why integrative analyses of multi-omics data could generate fresh insight into the mechanisms underlying these diseases.

    • Amira Metwaly
    • Sandra Reitmeier
    • Dirk Haller
    Review Article
  • In this Roadmap, Furth, Sethupathy and colleagues discuss advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and treatments of fibrolamellar carcinoma, a rare hepatic cancer that primarily occurs in adolescents and young adults. Recommendations for future progress in research and clinical trials are proposed.

    • Timothy A. Dinh
    • Alan F. Utria
    • Praveen Sethupathy
  • A subset of colorectal cancers arises from sessile serrated lesions. Tumorigenesis via the serrated neoplasia pathway is largely unexplored. Now, a new study suggests that this pathway is initiated by gastric metaplasia induced by damage and repair, which is triggered by disadvantageous composition of microbiota in the proximal colon.

    • Joep E. G. IJspeert
    • Evelien Dekker
    News & Views
  • In this Review, Russell and Camargo summarize the role of the Hippo signalling pathway in liver development, homeostasis, regeneration and disease, and discuss development of potential therapeutics for liver diseases such as fibrosis and cancer.

    • Jacquelyn O. Russell
    • Fernando D. Camargo
    Review Article
  • Growing evidence indicates that neutrophils are involved in tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, Geh and colleagues summarize neutrophil phenotypes in HCC, describe the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these contributions of neutrophils to HCC and highlight emerging neutrophil-targeted therapies.

    • Daniel Geh
    • Jack Leslie
    • Derek A. Mann
    Review Article
  • Mechanosensation — detecting mechanical forces and converting them into physiological responses — is important for normal gastrointestinal tract function. Mechanosensation abnormalities are frequently found in gastrointestinal diseases. This Review describes the physical properties of the gut relevant for mechanosensing, as well as the mechanosensory molecules, cells and circuits involved in gastrointestinal tract mechanosensation.

    • Arnaldo Mercado-Perez
    • Arthur Beyder
    Review Article